This secret crime society was virtually unknown until the 1960s, when member Joe Valachi first revealed the society’s secrets to law enforcement officials. What was known was that organized crime existed, but not that the extent of their control included working with the CIA, politicians and the biggest businesses in the world.
Mafia, juga dirujuk sebagai La Cosa Nostra (bahasa Italia: Hal Kami), adalah panggilan kolektif untuk beberapa organisasi rahasia diSisilia dan Amerika Serikat. Mafia awalnya merupakan nama sebuah konfederasi yang orang-orang di Sisilia masuki pada Abad Pertengahan untuk tujuan perlindungan dan penegakan hukum sendiri (main hakim). Konfederasi ini kemudian mulai melakukankejahatan terorganisir.
Anggota Mafia disebut "mafioso", yang berarti "pria terhormat".
Mafia melebarkan sayap ke Amerika Serikat melalui imigrasi pada abad ke-20.
Kekuatan Mafia mencapai puncaknya di AS pada pertengahan abad ke-20, hingga rentetan penyelidikan FBI pada tahun 1970-an dan1980-an agak mengurangi pengaruh mereka. Meski kejatuhannya tersebut, Mafia dan reputasinya telah tertanam di budaya populer Amerika, difilmkan di televisi dan bahkan iklan-iklan.
Istilah "mafia" kini telah melebar hingga dapat merujuk kepada kelompok besar apapun yang melakukan kejahatan terorganisir (bandingkan dengan Mafia Rusia, Yakuza di Jepang), dan Triad di China.
 Sicilian Mafia
Sketch of the 1901 maxi trial of suspected mafiosi in Palermo. From the newspaper L'Ora, May 1901
The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a criminal syndicate that emerged in the mid-nineteenth century in Sicily, Italy. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organizational structure and code of conduct, and whose common enterprise is protection racketeering. Each group, known as a "family", "clan", or "cosca", claims sovereignty over a territory in which it operates its rackets – usually a town or village or a neighbourhood (borgata) of a larger city. Its members call themselves "men of honour", although the public often refers to them as "mafiosi".
According to the classic definition, the Mafia is a criminal organization originating in Sicily. However, the term "mafia" has become a generic term for any organized criminal network with similar structure, methods, and interests.
The Mafia proper frequently parallels, collaborates with or clashes with, networks originating in other parts of southern Italy, such as the Camorra (fromCampania), the 'Ndrangheta (from Calabria), the Stidda (southern Sicily) and the Sacra Corona Unita (from Apulia). However, Giovanni Falcone, the anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Mafia in 1992, objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general:
While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word 'Mafia' ... nowadays people have gone so far in the opposite direction that it has become an overused term ... I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organized crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia.
—Giovanni Falcone, 1990
The American Mafia arose from offshoots of the Mafia that emerged in the United States during the late nineteenth century, following waves of emigration from Sicily. There were similar offshoots in Canada among Italian Canadians. However, while the same has been claimed of organised crime in Australia, this appears to result from confusion with 'Ndrangheta, which is generally regarded as more prominent among Italian Australians.
 Russian mafia
Russian MafiaFounding locationRussia, former Soviet Union TerritoryActive in many parts of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (mostly Moscow), America (mostly Brighton Beach), Canada, Spain, Portugal, France, and more. EthnicityPrimarily peoples of Eastern European and Eurasiandescent. Membership300,000 Criminal activitiesMoney laundering, racketeering,extortion, arms trafficking, cybercrime, human trafficking, prostitution, drug trafficking, arson, fraud, larceny, murder
The Russian mafia (Russian: русская мафия, russkaya mafiya) is a term used to refer to the collective of various organized crime syndicates originating in the former Soviet Union. Although not a singular criminal organization, most of the individual groups, known as Bratva ("brotherhood") or Vorovskoy mir ("thief in law, world"), share similar goals and organizational structures that define them as part of the loose overall association.
Organized crime in Russia began in its imperial period of Tsars, but it wasn't until the Soviet era that vory v zakone ("thieves-in-law") emerged as leaders of prison groups ingulags (Soviet prison labor camps), and the Thieves' Code became more defined. AfterWorld War II, the death of Joseph Stalin, and the fall of the Soviet Union, more gangs emerged in a flourishing black market, exploiting the unstable governments of the former Republics, and at its highest point, even controlling as much as two-thirds of the Russian economy. Louis Freeh, former director of the FBI, had once said the Russian Mafia posed the greatest threat to US national security in the mid-1990s.
In modern times, there are as many as 6,000 different groups, with more than 200 of them having a global reach. Criminals of these various groups are either former prison members, corrupt Communist officials and business leaders, people with ethnic ties, or people from the same region with shared criminal experiences and leaders. However, the existence of such groups has been debatable. In December 2009, Timur Lakhonin, the head of the Russian National Central Bureau of Interpol, stated, "Certainly, there is crime involving our former compatriots abroad, but there is no data suggesting that an organized structure of criminal groups comprising former Russians exists abroad", while in August 2010, Alain Bauer, a French criminologist, said that it "is one of the best structured criminal organisations in Europe, with a quasi-military operation."
 Yakuza (ヤクザ or やくざ ?)
also known as gokudō (極道?), are members of traditional Transnational organized crime syndicates in Japan. The Japanese police, and media by request of the police, call them bōryokudan (暴力団?, "violence group"), while the yakuza call themselves "ninkyō dantai" (任侠団体 or 仁侠団体?, "chivalrous organizations"). The yakuza are notorious for their strict codes of conduct and very organized nature. They are very prevalent in the Japanese media and operate internationally with an estimated 80,900 members in 2009, the last year for which an estimate is available.
. Triad (underground society)
Triad refers to the many branches of Chinese Transnational organized crime organizations based in Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and also in countries with significant Chinese populations, such as the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, the United States, Canada,Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.
 American Mafia
This article is about a criminal organization in the United States. For other uses, see Mafia (disambiguation).
Italian-American MafiaFounding locationOrigins in Campania, Calabria, and Sicily, founded in New York City. Years activeLate 19th century–present TerritoryUnited States; active in many parts of the country during its peak, currently active mostly in the northeast, Chicago, Detroit andFlorida. EthnicityFull members (made men) are Italian-American or Italian, other criminals of any ethnicity are employed as "associates". Criminal activitiesRacketeering, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, extortion, fencing, illegal gambling, murder, prostitution,blackmailing, loan sharking
The American Mafia (or simply the Mafia or Mob in the United States), is an Italian-American criminal society. Similar to the Sicilian Mafia, the American Mafia has no formal name and is a secret criminal society. Its members usually refer to it as Cosa Nostra(Italian pronunciation: [kɔza nɔstra], Italian for "our thing"). The press has also coined the name "National Crime Syndicate" to refer to the entirety of U.S. organized crime, including the Mafia. The Mafia emerged in New York's Lower East Side, other areas of the East Coast of the United States, and several other major metropolitan areas (such as New Orleans ) during the late 19th century following waves of Italian immigration, especially from Sicily. It has its roots in the Sicilian Mafia, but is a separate organization in the United States. Neapolitan, Calabrian, and other Italian criminal groups, as well as independent Italian-American criminals, eventually merged with the Sicilians to create the modern pan-Italian Mafia in North America. Today, the American Mafia cooperates in various criminal activities with the Sicilian Mafia and other Italian organized crime groups, such as Camorra, 'Ndrangheta, and Sacra Corona Unita.
The Mafia is currently most active in New York City, New Jersey, Philadelphia, New England, Detroit, and Chicago, with smaller families, associates, and crews in places such as Florida, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, and Texas. There have been at least 26 cities around the United States with Cosa Nostra families, with many more offshoots, splinter groups and associates in other cities. There are five main New York City Mafia families, known as the Five Families: the Gambino,Lucchese, Genovese, Bonanno and Colombo families. At its peak, the Mafia dominated organized crime in the U.S. While each crime family operates independently, nationwide coordination is provided by the Commission, which consists of the bosses of each of the strongest families.
Law enforcement still considers the Mafia the largest organized crime group in the United States. It has maintained control over much of the organized crime activity in the United States and certain parts of Canada (See Rizzuto crime family). Today most of the Mafia's activities are contained to the Northeastern United States and Chicago where they continue to dominate organized crime despite the increasing numbers of street gangs and other organizations that are not of Italian origin.
Yardies Jamaika-Inggris adalah geng Jamaika yang berimigrasi ke Britania pada tahun 1950-an. Mereka terlibat dalam kekerasan geng dan kemudian dikenal sebagai Yardies. Geng ini melakukan kejahatan terorganisir seperti perdagangan narkoba dan kejahatan senjata lainnya. Mereka tidak mencoba menyusup sistem penegakan hukum sehingga mereka tidak dianggap sebagai yang kuat sebagai kelompok mafia lain.
The Albanian Mafia
Mafia Albania terdiri dari sejumlah besar organisasi kejahatan yang berbasis di Albania. Mereka aktif di Amerika Serikat dan negara-negara Eropa juga. Konon, mafia Albania menyebar ke tingkat internasional sejak tahun 1980-an. Di Amerika Serikat dan Inggris, mereka menjalankan seks dan perdagangan narkoba. Kelompok mafia ini dikenal cepat menggunakan cepat kekerasan untuk membalas dendam.
The Serbian mafia
Mafia Serbia beroperasi di lebih dari sepuluh negara termasuk Jerman, Amerika Serikat, Inggris, Perancis, dll. Mereka terlibat dalam kegiatan yang berbeda seperti perdagangan narkoba, penyelundupan, kontrak membunuh, judi dan pencurian gen. Ada tiga kelompok besar, yaitu Vozdovac, Surcin dan Zemun yang mengendalikan kelompok-kelompok kecil. Saat ini ada sekitar 30-40 kelompok kerja di Serbia.
Mafia Israel bekerja di banyak negara dalam kegiatan seperti perdagangan narkoba dan prostitusi. Mereka terkenal kejam dan tidak berpikir dua kali untuk membunuh. Mafia Rusia-Israel telah meresap ke dalam sistem politik AS sehingga pasukan AS gagal mencapai kemajuan yang signifikan untuk menghentikan mereka.
Meksiko Mafia adalah geng penjara yang sangat kuat di Amerika Serikat, dimulai pada akhir 1950-an untuk melindungi tahanan terhadap narapidana lain dan dari para petugas. Geng ini juga telah terlibat dalam pemerasan dan perdagangan narkoba. Tercatat, geng ini memiliki sekitar 30.000 anggota di seluruh Amerika Serikat. Para anggota geng kadang-kadang membuat tato dengan desain umum yang merupakan simbol nasional Meksiko.
Colombian Drug Cartels
Kartel Narkoba Kolombia dibentuk terutama untuk mengendalikan perdagangan obat-obatan. Mereka beroperasi di banyak negara, dengan jumlah organisasi yang berhubungan dengan politik, aspek militer dan hukum kartel. Kartel penting dari Columbia adalah Kartel Cali, Medellin Cartel dan Kartel Valle del Norte. Mereka juga telah terlibat dalam banyak penculikan dan terorisme.
Indonesian Berkeley Mafia 
The Berkeley Mafia was the term given to a group of U.S.-educated Indonesian economists whose efforts brought Indonesia back from dire economic conditions and the brink of famine in the mid-1960s. They were appointed in the early stages of the 'New Order' administration. Almost three decades of economic growth followed. Their efforts also began long-term U.S.-Indonesian strategic cooperation, which was important during the Cold War.