In the 1950s to the 1970s, the CIA ran a mind-control project aimed at finding a “truth serum” to use on communist spies. Test subjects were given LSD and other drugs, often without consent, and some were tortured. At least one man, civilian biochemist Frank Olson, who was working for the government, died as a result of the experiments. The project was finally exposed after investigations by the Rockefeller Commission.--------------------------------------------
Project MKUltra 
Project MKUltra was the code name of a U.S. government covert research operation experimenting inthe behavioral engineering of humans (mind control) through the CIA's Scientific Intelligence Division. The program began in the early 1950s, was officially sanctioned in 1953, was reduced in scope in 1964, further curtailed in 1967 and "officially halted" in 1973.The program engaged in many illegal activities; in particular it used unwitting U.S. and Canadian citizens as its test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy. MKUltra involved the use of manymethodologies to manipulate people's individual mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosis,sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, as well as various forms oftorture.The scope of Project MKUltra was broad, with research undertaken at 80 institutions, including 44 colleges and universities, as well as hospitals, prisons and pharmaceutical companies. The CIA operated through these institutions using front organizations, although sometimes top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement. MKUltra was allocated 6 percent of total CIA funds.Project MKUltra was first brought to public attention in 1975 by the Church Committee of the U.S. Congress, and a Gerald Ford commission to investigate CIA activities within the United States. Investigative efforts were hampered by the fact that CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MKUltra files destroyed in 1973; the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission investigations relied on the sworn testimony of direct participants and on the relatively small number of documents that survived Helms' destruction order.In 1977, a Freedom of Information Act request uncovered a cache of 20,000 documents relating to project MKUltra, which led to Senate hearings later that same year. In July 2001 some surviving information regarding MKUltra was officially declassified.
Dr. Sidney Gottlieb approved of an MKUltra subproject on LSD in this June 9, 1953 letter.Precursor experimentsA precursor of the MKUltra program began in 1945 when the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency was established and given direct responsibility for Operation Paperclip. The program recruited former Nazi scientists, some of whom studied torture and brainwashing, and several who had been identified and prosecuted as war criminals during the Nuremberg Trials.Several secret U.S. government projects grew out of Operation Paperclip. These projects included Project CHATTER (established 1947), and Project BLUEBIRD (established 1950), which was renamed Project ARTICHOKE in 1951. Their purpose was to study mind control,interrogation, behavior modification and related topics.
The project's intentionally oblique CIA cryptonym is made up of the digraph MK, meaning that the project was sponsored by the agency's Technical Services Staff, followed by the word Ultra (which had previously been used to designate the most secret classification ofWorld War II intelligence). Other related cryptonyms include Project MKNAOMI and Project MKDELTA.Headed by Sidney Gottlieb, the MKUltra project was started on the order of CIA director Allen Welsh Dulles on April 13, 1953. Its remit was to develop mind-controlling drugs for use against the Soviet bloc, largely in response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea.The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives. The CIA was also interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques, and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro.Experiments were often conducted without the subjects' knowledge or consent. In some cases, academic researchers being funded through grants from CIA front organizations were unaware that their work was being used for these purposes.In 1964, the project was renamed MKSEARCH. The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and generally to explore any other possibilities of mind control. Another MKUltra effort, Subproject 54, was the Navy's top secret "Perfect Concussion" program, which was supposed to use sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory. However, the program was never carried out.Because most MKUltra records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 by order of then CIA director Richard Helms, it has been difficult, if not impossible, for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 individually funded research sub-projects sponsored by MKUltra and related CIA programs.The project began during a period of what Rupert Cornwell described as "paranoia" at the CIA, when America had lost its nuclear monopoly, and fear of Communism was at its height. James Jesus Angleton, head of CIA counter-intelligence, believed that the organization had been penetrated by a mole at the highest levels.
The Agency poured millions of dollars into studies examining methods of influencing and controlling the mind, and of enhancing their ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation.Some historians have asserted that creating a "Manchurian Candidate" subject through "mind control" techniques was a goal of MKUltra and related CIA projects.Alfred McCoy has claimed that the CIA attempted to focus media attention on these sorts of "ridiculous" programs, so that the public would not look at the primary goal of the research, which was developing effective methods of torture and interrogation. Such authors cite as one example that the CIA's KUBARK interrogation manual refers to "studies at McGill University", and that most of the techniques recommended in KUBARK are exactly those that researcher Donald Ewen Cameron used on his test subjects (sensory deprivation, drugs, isolation, etc.).One 1955 MKUltra document gives an indication of the size and range of the effort; this document refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering substances described as follows:Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.Materials which will cause the victim to age faster/slower in maturity.Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so that they may be used for malingering, etc.Materials will cause temporary/permanent brain damage and loss of memory.Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture and coercion during interrogation and so-called "brain-washing".Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.Substances which will produce a chemical that can cause blisters.Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a person to perform physical activity.
CIA documents suggest that "chemical, biological and radiological" means were investigated for the purpose of mind control as part of MKUltra. A secretive arrangement granted the MKUltra program a percentage of the CIA budget. The MKUltra director was granted six percent of the CIA operating budget in 1953, without oversight or accounting. An estimated $10 million USD ($80 million adjusted for inflation) or more was spent.
DrugsLSD1953 experiment record
Early CIA efforts focused on LSD, which later came to dominate many of MKUltra's programs. Technical Services Staff officials understood that LSD distorted a person's sense of reality, and they felt compelled to learn whether it could alter someone's basic loyalties. The CIA wanted to know if they could make Russian spies defect against their will and whether the Russians could do the same to their own operatives.Once Project MKUltra officially got underway in April, 1953, experiments included administering LSD to mental patients, prisoners, drug addicts and prostitutes, "people who could not fight back", as one agency officer put it.In one case LSD was administered to a mental patient in Kentucky for 174 days. LSD was also administered to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions. LSD and other drugs were usually administered without the subject's knowledge or informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg Code that the U.S. agreed to follow after World War II. The aim of this was to find drugs which would irresistibly bring out deep confessions or wipe a subject's mind clean and program him or her as "a robot agent".In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels in San Francisco, California to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events. The men were dosed with LSD, the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors, and the sessions were filmed for later viewing and study.In other experiments where people were given LSD without their knowledge, they were interrogated under bright lights with doctors in the background taking notes. The subjects were told that their "trips" would be extended indefinitely if they refused to reveal their secrets. The people being interrogated this way were CIA employees, U. S. military personnel, and agents suspected of working for the other side in the Cold War. Long-term debilitation and several deaths resulted from this.Heroin addicts were bribed into taking LSD with offers of more heroin. The office of Security used LSD in interrogations but Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the chemist who directed MKUltra, had other ideas: he thought it could be used in covert operations. Since its effects were temporary, he believed it could be given to high officials and in this way affect the course of important meetings, speeches etc. Since he realized there was a difference in testing the drug in a laboratory and using it in clandestine operations, he initiated a series of experiments where LSD was given to people in "normal" settings without warning. At first, everyone in Technical Services tried it; a typical experiment involved two people in a room where they observed each other for hours and took notes. As the experimentation progressed, a point was reached where outsiders were drugged with no explanation whatsoever and surprise acid trips became something of an occupational hazard among CIA operatives. Adverse reactions often occurred, for example an operative who had received the drug in his morning coffee, became psychotic and ran across Washington, seeing a monster in every car that passed him. Incidents like that reaffirmed that LSD is a dangerous weapon but that only made them more enthusiastic. The experiments continued even after Dr. Frank Olson, an army scientist who had not taken LSD before, went into deep depression after a surprise trip and later fell from a thirteenth story window (it is unclear whether he committed suicide or was murdered before being thrown out of the window).Some subjects' participation was consensual, and in these cases they appeared to be singled out for even more extreme experiments. In one case, seven volunteers in Kentucky were given LSD for 77 consecutive days.LSD was eventually dismissed by MKUltra's researchers as too unpredictable in its results. They had given up on the notion that LSD was "the secret that was going to unlock the universe" but it still had a place in the cloak-and-dagger arsenal. However, by 1962, the CIA and the army had developed a series of superhallucinogens such as the highly touted BZ, which was thought to hold greater promise as a mind control weapon. This resulted in the withdrawal of support for many academics and private researchers and LSD research became less of a priority altogether.
Another technique investigated was connecting a barbiturate IV into one arm and an amphetamine IV into the other. The barbiturates were released into the person first, and as soon as the person began to fall asleep, the amphetamines were released. The person would then begin babbling incoherently, and it was sometimes possible to ask questions and get useful answers.Other experiments involved drugs such as temazepam (used under code name MKSEARCH), heroin, morphine, MDMA, mescaline,psilocybin, scopolamine, marijuana, alcohol, sodium pentothal, and ergine (in Subproject 22).
Declassified MKUltra documents indicate hypnosis was studied in the early 1950s. Experimental goals included: the creation of "hypnotically induced anxieties," "hypnotically increasing ability to learn and recall complex written matter," studying hypnosis andpolygraph examinations, "hypnotically increasing ability to observe and recall complex arrangements of physical objects," and studying "relationship of personality to susceptibility to hypnosis." Experiments were conducted with drug induced hypnosis and with anterograde and retrograde amnesia while under the influence of such drugs.
The experiments were exported to Canada when the CIA recruited Scottish psychiatrist Donald Ewen Cameron, creator of the "psychic driving" concept, which the CIA found particularly interesting. Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by erasing existing memories and reprogramming the psyche. He commuted from Albany, New York to Montreal every week to work at the Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University and was paid $69,000 from 1957 to 1964 to carry out MKUltra experiments there.In addition to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs as well as electroconvulsive therapy at thirty to forty times the normal power. His "driving" experiments consisted of putting subjects into drug-induced coma for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case) while playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements. His experiments were typically carried out on patients who had entered the institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postpartum depression, many of whom suffered permanently from his actions.His treatments resulted in victims' incontinence, amnesia, forgetting how to talk, forgetting their parents, and thinking their interrogators were their parents. His work was inspired and paralleled by the British psychiatrist William Sargant at St Thomas' Hospital, London, and Belmont Hospital, Surrey, who was also involved in the Intelligence Services and who experimented extensively on his patients without their consent, causing similar long-term damage.It was during this era that Cameron became known worldwide as the first chairman of the World Psychiatric Association as well as president of the American and Canadian psychiatric associations. Cameron had also been a member of the Nuremberg medical tribunal in 1946–47.Naomi Klein argues in her book The Shock Doctrine that Cameron's research and his contribution to the MKUltra project was actually not about mind control and brainwashing, but about designing "a scientifically based system for extracting information from 'resistant sources.' In other words, torture." Citing Alfred W. McCoy, Klein further writes that "Stripped of its bizarre excesses, Dr. Cameron's experiments, building upon Donald O. Hebb's earlier breakthrough, laid the scientific foundation for the CIA's two-stage psychological torture method."
Frank Church headed the Church Committee, an investigation into the practices of the US intelligence agencies.In 1973, with the government-wide panic caused by Watergate, the CIA Director Richard Helmsordered all MKUltra files destroyed. Pursuant to this order, most CIA documents regarding the project were destroyed, making a full investigation of MKUltra impossible. A cache of some 20,000 documents survived Helms' purge, as they had been incorrectly stored in a financial record building and were discovered following a FOIA request in 1977. These documents were fully investigated during the Senate Hearings of 1977.In December 1974, The New York Times alleged that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on U.S. citizens, during the 1960s. That report prompted investigations by the U.S. Congress, in the form of the Church Committee, and by a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission that looked into domestic activities of the CIA, theFBI, and intelligence-related agencies of the military.In the summer of 1975, congressional Church Committee reports and the presidential Rockefeller Commission report revealed to the public for the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defensehad conducted experiments on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects as part of an extensive program to influence and control human behavior through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means. They also revealed that at least one subject had died after administration of LSD. Much of what the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission learned about MKUltra was contained in a report, prepared by the Inspector General's office in 1963, that had survived the destruction of records ordered in 1973. However, it contained little detail. Sidney Gottlieb, who had retired from the CIA two years previously, was interviewed by the committee but claimed to have very little recollection of the activities of MKUltra.The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that "[p]rior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects". The committee noted that the "experiments sponsored by these researchers ... call into question the decision by the agencies not to fix guidelines for experiments."Following the recommendations of the Church Committee, President Gerald Ford in 1976 issued the first Executive Order on Intelligence Activities which, among other things, prohibited "experimentation with drugs on human subjects, except with the informed consent, in writing and witnessed by a disinterested party, of each such human subject" and in accordance with the guidelines issued by the National Commission. Subsequent orders by Presidents Carter and Reagan expanded the directive to apply to any human experimentation.
1977 United States Senate report on MKUltra
In 1977, during a hearing held by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, to look further into MKUltra, Admiral Stansfield Turner, then Director of Central Intelligence, revealed that the CIA had found a set of records, consisting of about 20,000 pages, that had survived the 1973 destruction orders because they had been stored at a records center not usually used for such documents. These files dealt with the financing of MKUltra projects and contained few project details, however much more was learned from them than from the Inspector General's 1963 report.On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing and experimentation" program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens "at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign." Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to "unwitting subjects in social situations." At least one death, that of Dr. Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.In Canada, the issue took much longer to surface, becoming widely known in 1984 on a CBCnews show, The Fifth Estate. It was learned that not only had the CIA funded Dr. Cameron's efforts, but perhaps even more shockingly, the Canadian government was fully aware of this, and had later provided another $500,000 in funding to continue the experiments. This revelation largely derailed efforts by the victims to sue the CIA as their U.S. counterparts had, and the Canadian government eventually settled out of court for $100,000 to each of the 127 victims. None of Dr. Cameron's personal records of his involvement with MKUltra survive, since his family destroyed them after his death from a heart attack while mountain climbing in 1967.
1984 U.S. General Accounting Office report
The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1984, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.The quote from the study:Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of "volunteer" soldiers in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen code-named BZ. (Note 37) Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MKUltra program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects
Given the CIA's purposeful destruction of most records, its failure to follow informed consent protocols with thousands of participants, the uncontrolled nature of the experiments, and the lack of follow-up data, the full impact of MKUltra experiments, including deaths, will never be known.Several known deaths have been associated with Project MKUltra, most notably that of Frank Olson. Olson, a United States Armybiochemist and biological weapons researcher, was given LSD without his knowledge or consent in November, 1953, as part of a CIA experiment and died under suspicious circumstances a week later.A CIA doctor assigned to monitor Olson claimed to have been asleep in another bed in a New York City hotel room when Olson exited the window and fell thirteen stories to his death. In 1953, Olson's death was described as a suicide that had occurred during a severe psychotic episode.The CIA's own internal investigation concluded that the head of MK ULTRA, CIA chemist Sidney Gottlieb, had conducted the LSD experiment with Olson's prior knowledge, although neither Olson nor the other men taking part in the experiment were informed as to the exact nature of the drug until some 20 minutes after its ingestion. The report further suggested that Gottlieb was nonetheless due a reprimand, as he had failed to take into account Olson's already-diagnosed suicidal tendencies, which might have been exacerbated by the LSD.The Olson family disputes the official version of events. They maintain that Frank Olson was murdered because, especially in the aftermath of his LSD experience, he had become a security risk who might divulge state secrets associated with highly classified CIA programs, many of which he had direct personal knowledge.A few days before his death, Frank Olson quit his position as acting chief of the Special Operations Division at Detrick, Maryland (later Fort Detrick) because of a severe moral crisis concerning the nature of his biological weapons research. Among Olson's concerns were the development of assassination materials used by the CIA, the CIA's use of biological warfare materials in covert operations, experimentation with biological weapons in populated areas, collaboration with former Nazi scientists under Operation Paperclip, LSD mind-control research, the use of biological weapons (including anthrax) during the Korean War, and the use of psychoactive drugs during "terminal" interrogations under a program code-named Project ARTICHOKE.Later forensic evidence conflicted with the official version of events; when Olson's body was exhumed in 1994, cranial injuries indicated that Olson had been knocked unconscious before he exited the window. The medical examiner termed Olson's death a "homicide".In 1975, Olson's family received a $750,000 settlement from the U.S. government and formal apologies from President Gerald Ford and CIA Director William Colby, though their apologies were limited to informed consent issues concerning Olson's ingestion of LSD. On 28 November 2012, the Olson family filed suit against the U.S. federal government for the wrongful death of Frank Olson.In his 2009 book, A Terrible Mistake, researcher H. P. Albarelli Jr. concurs with the Olson family and concludes that Frank Olson was murdered because a personal crisis of conscience made it likely he would divulge state secrets concerning several CIA programs, chief among them Project ARTICHOKE and an MKDELTA project code-named Project SPAN. Albarelli presents considerable evidence in support of his theory that Project SPAN involved the contamination of food supplies and the aerosolized spraying of a potent LSD mixture in the village of Pont-Saint-Esprit, France in August, 1951. The Pont-Saint-Esprit incident resulted in mass psychosis, 32 commitments to mental institutions, and at least seven deaths. In his work as acting chief of the Special Operations Division, Olson was involved in the development of aerosolized delivery systems; he had been present at Pont-Saint-Esprit in August, 1951; and several months before resigning his position he had witnessed a terminal interrogation conducted in Germany under Project ARTICHOKE. Other researchers have reached conclusions similar to Albarelli's, including John Grant Fuller, author of The Day of Saint Anthony's Fire, a landmark book that originally cited ergot poisoning as responsible for the events at Pont-Saint-Esprit.On April 26, 1976, the Church Committee of the United States Senate issued a report, "Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operation with Respect to Intelligence Activities",
In Book I, Chapter XVII, p 389 this report states:
LSD was one of the materials tested in the MKUltra program. The final phase of LSD testing involved surreptitious administration to unwitting non-volunteer subjects in normal life settings by undercover officers of the Bureau of Narcotics acting for the CIA.A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKUltra materials abroad. Such materials were used on a number of occasions. Because MKUltra records were destroyed, it is impossible to reconstruct the operational use of MKUltra materials by the CIA overseas; it has been determined that the use of these materials abroad began in 1953, and possibly as early as 1950.Drugs were used primarily as an aid to interrogations, but MKUltra/MKDelta materials were also used for harassment, discrediting, or disabling purposes.Another known victim of Project MKUltra was Harold Blauer, a professional tennis player in New York City, who died in January, 1953 as a result of a secret Army experiment involving MDA.
Legal issues involving informed consent
The revelations about the CIA and the Army prompted a number of subjects or their survivors to file lawsuits against the federal government for conducting experiments without informed consent. Although the government aggressively, and sometimes successfully, sought to avoid legal liability, several plaintiffs did receive compensation through court order, out-of-court settlement, or acts of Congress.Frank Olson's family received $750,000 by a special act of Congress, and both President Ford and CIA director William Colby met with Olson's family to publicly apologize.Previously, the CIA and the Army had actively and successfully sought to withhold incriminating information, even as they secretly provided compensation to the families. One subject of Army drug experimentation,James Stanley, an Army sergeant, brought an important, albeit unsuccessful, suit.The government argued that Stanley was barred from suing under a legal doctrine—known as the Feres doctrine, after a 1950 Supreme Court case, Feres v. United States—that prohibits members of the Armed Forces from suing the government for any harms that were inflicted "incident to service."In 1987, the Supreme Court affirmed this defense in a 5–4 decision that dismissed Stanley's case: United States v. Stanley. The majority argued that "a test for liability that depends on the extent to which particular suits would call into question military discipline and decision making would itself require judicial inquiry into, and hence intrusion upon, military matters."In dissent, Justice William Brennan argued that the need to preserve military discipline should not protect the government from liability and punishment for serious violations of constitutional rights:The medical trials at Nuremberg in 1947 deeply impressed upon the world that experimentation with unknowing human subjects is morally and legally unacceptable. The United States Military Tribunal established the Nuremberg Code as a standard against which to judge German scientists who experimented with human subjects... . [I]n defiance of this principle, military intelligence officials ... began surreptitiously testing chemical and biological materials, including LSD.Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, writing a separate dissent, stated:No judicially crafted rule should insulate from liability the involuntary and unknowing human experimentation alleged to have occurred in this case. Indeed, as Justice Brennan observes, the United States played an instrumental role in the criminal prosecution of Nazi officials who experimented with human subjects during the Second World War, and the standards that the Nuremberg Military Tribunals developed to judge the behavior of the defendants stated that the 'voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential ... to satisfy moral, ethical, and legal concepts.' If this principle is violated, the very least that society can do is to see that the victims are compensated, as best they can be, by the perpetrators.This is the only Supreme Court case to address the application of the Nuremberg Code to experimentation sponsored by the U.S. government. Although the suit was unsuccessful, dissenting opinions put the Army—and by association the entire government—on notice that use of individuals without their consent is unacceptable.The limited application of the Nuremberg Code in U.S. courts does not detract from the power of the principles it espouses, especially in light of stories of failure to follow these principles that appeared in the media and professional literature during the 1960s and 1970s and the policies eventually adopted in the mid-1970s.In another law suit, Wayne Ritchie, a former United States Marshal, after hearing about the project's existence in 1990, alleged the CIA laced his food or drink with LSD at a 1957 Christmas party which resulted in his attempting to commit a robbery at a bar and his subsequent arrest. While the government admitted it was, at that time, drugging people without their consent, U.S. District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel found Ritchie could not prove he was one of the victims of MKUltra or that LSD caused his robbery attempt and dismissed the case in 2007.
Extent of participation
Forty-four American colleges or universities, 15 research foundations or chemical or pharmaceutical companies and the like including Sandoz (now Novartis) and Eli Lilly and Company, 12 hospitals or clinics (in addition to those associated with universities), and three prisons are known to have participated in MKUltra.
The author Ken Kesey was a willing participant in the LSD experiments.A considerable amount of credible circumstantial evidence suggests that Theodore Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, participated in CIA-sponsored MKUltra experiments conducted at Harvard University from the fall of 1959 through the spring of 1962. During World War II, Henry Murray, the lead researcher in the Harvard experiments, served with the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), which was a forerunner of the CIA. Murray applied for a grant funded by the United States Navy, and his Harvardstress experiments strongly resembled those run by the OSS. Beginning at the age of sixteen, Kaczynski participated along with twenty-one other undergraduate students in the Harvard experiments, which have been described as "disturbing" and "ethically indefensible."Merry Prankster Ken Kesey, author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, volunteered for MKUltra experiments involving LSD and other psychedelic drugs at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Menlo Park while he was a student at nearby Stanford University. Kesey's experiences while under the influence of LSD inspired him to promote the drug outside the context of the MKUltra experiments, which influenced the early development of hippie culture.Robert Hunter is an American lyricist, singer-songwriter, translator, and poet, best known for his association with Jerry Garcia and the Grateful Dead. Along with Ken Kesey, Hunter was an early volunteer MKUltra test subject at Stanford University. Stanford test subjects were paid to take LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline, then report on their experiences. These experiences were creatively formative for Hunter:Sit back picture yourself swooping up a shell of purple with foam crests of crystal drops soft nigh they fall unto the sea of morning creep-very-softly mist...and then sort of cascade tinkley-bell like (must I take you by the hand, every so slowly type) and then conglomerate suddenly into a peal of silver vibrant uncomprehendingly, blood singingly, joyously resounding bells....By my faith if this be insanity, then for the love of God permit me to remain insane.Candy Jones, American fashion model and radio host, claimed to have been a victim of mind control in the 1960s.Boston mobster James "Whitey" Bulger volunteered for testing while in prison.
MKUltra plays a part in many conspiracy theories given its nature and the destruction of most records.Lawrence Teeter, attorney for convicted assassin Sirhan Sirhan, believed Sirhan was under the influence of hypnosis when he fired his weapon at Robert F. Kennedy in 1968. Teeter linked the CIA's MKUltra program to mind control techniques that he claimed were used to control Sirhan.Jonestown, the Guyana location of the Jim Jones cult and Peoples Temple mass suicide, was thought to be a test site for MKUltra medical and mind control experiments after the official end of the program.Congressman Leo Ryan, a known critic of the CIA, was murdered by Peoples Temple members after he personally visited Jonestown to investigate various reported irregularities.
At his retirement in 1972, Gottlieb dismissed his entire effort for the CIA's MKUltra program as "useless". Although the CIA insists that MKUltra-type experiments have been abandoned, some CIA observers say there is little reason to believe it does not continue today under a different set of acronyms.14-year CIA veteran Victor Marchetti has stated in various interviews that the CIA routinely conducts disinformation campaigns and that CIA mind control research continued. In a 1977 interview, Marchetti specifically called the CIA claim that MKUltra was abandoned a "cover story."
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History of MK Ultraby Eric Jewell2Thes.2  And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie:This is a cursory but fact filled work concerning the atrocities of mind control perpetrated by the darker elements of US Government in the last half century to this present day. The subject is so detailed, documented and widespread, that it would take several books to tackle this subject exhaustively, but my hope is that this work will educate the reader and arm them with enough fact they can easily do further study on the subject. The intent is to document the subject in areas that prove the existence of this program used on an individual scale and in a mass scale being used worldwide.A History Of MK UltraDuring the late 1940′s the CIA produced and played starring role in what was then known as “Operation Paperclip”. Operation Paperclip hinged on a misdirection campaign. The Misdirection was simple. The United States led the world to pursue many of the Nazi military officers who committed gross atrocities against their prisoners in at attempt to convict them of war crimes. This was highly publicized with a media fervor. Behind the scenes however, US Intelligence communities were recruiting Nazi scientists and renowned concentration camp medical doctors and psychiatrists. These men were all high ranking Nazi SS officers, who were guilty of committing grizzly and sometimes mind bending offenses that surpassed all else done in the war. Many of these men being recruited to work for us were the very men who were responsible for the horrors at Auschwitz and other camps. They received the option to either come work for us in such labs as Los Alamos for much more money than they received from the Germans, or be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law for their crimes. Of course the decision for most was almost instant.MK Ultra is not just a conspiracy theory. The projects it encompassed came about expanding on the works of the Nazi doctors and scientists recruited from operation paperclip.It is a fact that the CIA proposed and conducted mind control experimentation from the mid 1940′s on, using the German scientists courted by our nation. In a large degree it is a matter of public record and was a matter of Senate Committee investigation. What actually is revealed is certainly stranger and more frightening than fiction.In 1975, during the first senate committee meeting concerning MK Ultra it was said; “From its beginning in the early 1950s until its termination in 1963, the program of surreptitious administration of LSD to unwitting non-volunteer human subjects demonstrates a failure of the CIA’s leadership to pay adequate attention to the rights of individuals and to provide effective guidance to CIA employees.Though it was known that the testing was dangerous, the lives and sanity of test subjects were placed in jeopardy and ignored…. Although it was clear that the laws of the United States were being violated, the testing continued.”The CIA, 2 years later in 1977, found itself again before the Senate and key men were questioned concerning their role in conducting these and other tortuous and mind killing “experiments”. In 1975-1976 however George H.W. Bush was appointed director of the CIA, and senate hearings have revealed that a massive amount of paperwork concerning Mk ultra projects has been destroyed. It should be noted that the official story claimed that the majority of the paperwork was destroyed in 1972. US interest in mind control and manipulation can be traced back to Dr. A. Newton Richards in 1941. This was the year that the Chemical Warfare Service merged with the Committee on Medical Research. Richards was the progressive liberal director who had concluded there was a necessity to progress certain studies to the human level of experimentation.Because of the horror and public outrage that would be raised, and in order to be able to run without obstacle, this sort of operation of course would later come to be known as a black operation.In 1942 Richards contacted War Secretary Henry Stimson requisiting approval to use military personnel for experimentation involving poisonous gasses. Ultimately many multiple thousands of servicemen suffered such “experimentation”.In March 1943, Vannevar Bush approved a Richard’s plan to perform secret “medical” experimentation on prisoners at the federal penitentiary in Terre Haute Indiana.The National Academy of Sciences has estimated that since the 1940′s over 60,000 servicemen were subjected to similar life threatening and life-shortening experiments. It is further estimated that perhaps as many as 20,000 servicemen and their dependents were intentionally exposed to radium. Consider too that these figures only include admitted experimentation. The 80,000 US servicemen were not alone in this. “Experimentation” was also performed on inmates, prostitutes, and the mentally unsound citizens of the United States. Poor whites and blacks were irradiated and developed cancerous growths, in what is known as “terminal experimentation”… experimentation to the death.In 1953 “paperclip” began producing fruit with several new programs sanctioned under then CIA director Allan Dulles. Operation Paperclip evolved into project “Bluebird” (1949), project Naomi (1950, and project “artichoke” (1951), and then MK Ultra (1953) became the officially designated cover-all name for this multifaceted project, which operated as it willed without restraint or any human regard. Just a bare 24 years later the CIA would find itself summoned to answer for some of these projects before Senate committees, unfortunately it was glossed over, covered up and later forgotten, but not before certain facts escaped.The MK-Ultra program entailed a very wide range of projects, all concerning themselves with mind control. Documentation reveals at least 149 sub-projects. Everything from brainwashing and repatriotization, to creating unwitting couriers of classified information, to turning the average Joe into an assassin without ever knowing they were even being manipulated, was looked into in a “how can we do this?” sort of way. This was accomplished by way of a steady diet of drugs hypnosis and trauma.There were several Nazi “Specialists”… medical officers working to manufacture genetics to create the perfect race, and others specializing in breaking men down, while others actually developed hypnotically prepared “average Joes” as time-bombs to be set off to accomplish pre programmed covert goals.Bio’s, Evidence, and TestimonyDr. Joseph MengeleJoseph Mengele began his studies in philosophy, medicine, and anthropology at Munich University in 1930. During this time the Nazi party was the second most popular political party in the Germany. It was during this time that Munich was under the spell of the fiery passionately Anglo-loving, minority hating, hypnotically captivating speeches of Adolph Hitler. Mengele wasted no time embracing Nazism and in 1931 joined The Steel Helmets.After distinguishing himself in battle, Mengle arrived at Auschwitz to study genetics. Working as an officer of the sinister SS, his works included experimentation in removing defective or inferior genes and replace them with superior genes and visa versa. One of the ultimate goals of his work was to discover the genetic formula to create a super race. This superior race was to be genetically engineered to be the master race, while at the same time creating a slave race that would do the menial less glamorous tasks.One of his very first acts as an SS officer making his mark upon arriving at Auschwitz, was to order the deaths of 1000 Jewish men women and children.He was recruited by the CIA at the end of the war, and worked largely out of Brazil. Despite his gross abominable reign at the infamous death camp, and the massive amount of evidence against him, he was never seriously persued as a war criminal.Sidney GottleibGottleib was in imported German scientist who had very strong US intelligence ties, one of which was Richard Helms, who was the CIA’s deputy director of covert ops. After being recruited to the United States at the end of WWII, Gotleib also headed MK Ultras Chemical Division.Gottleib was for a while the Superior of Joseph Mengele at Auscwhitz. After being recruited to the United States, Gottleib replaced Willis Gibbins to over see MK Ultra.He worked extensively with LSD, even experimenting personally with it. At one point in his CIA career he slipped large doses of the mind-bending drug to 6 of his unsuspecting colleagues. Dr. Frank Olson had a violently bad trip and required hospitalization. Shortly after an examination by a Dr. Harold Abramson Olson met him in a hotel room. Abramson claims that he poured Olson a bourbon and gave him Benzedrine and that Olson then became delusional again and leapt from the 10th floor window to his death.An Intimate look into some past MK Ultra ProjectsThe following declassified CIA document from 1955 blatantly shows the various brainwashing agendas of MK Ultra types of experimentation. The devaluation of human lives is clear. Also from this following document and from further testimony from researchers who worked this area, and the information concerning the “fathers” of modern psychiatry, we can see that these practices have followed through to modern day psychiatric wards. It is also seen that part of the experimentation included publicly discrediting individuals at will. This was likely to be used upon those who were attempting to stand in the way of New World Order agenda, exposing such things as the dubious MK Ultra program.[Document begins]DRAFT[Deleted]5 May 1955A portion of the Research and Development Program of TSS/Chemical Division is devoted to the discovery of the following materials and methods:1. Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.2. Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.3. Materials which will prevent or counteract the intoxicating effect of alcohol.4. Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.5. Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so that they may be used for malingering, etc.6. Materials which will render the indication of hypnosis easier or otherwise enhance its usefulness.7. Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture and coercion during interrogation and so-called “brainwashing”.8. Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.9. Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.10. Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.[page break]-2-11. Substances which will produce “pure” euphoria with no subsequent let-down.12. Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.13. A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.14. Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.15. Substances which will promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.16. A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.17. A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a man to perform any physical activity whatever.The development of materials of this type follows the standard practice of such ethical drug houses as [deleted. but possibly Eli Lilly who had previously helped with such experimentation]. It is a relatively routine procedure to develop a drug to the point of human testing. Ordinarily, the drug houses depend upon the services of private physicians for the final clinical testing. The physicians are willing to assume the responsibility of such tests in order to advance the science of medicine. It is difficult and sometimes impossible for TSS/CD to offer such an inducement with respect to its products. In practice, it has been possible to use the outside cleared contractors for the preliminary phases of this work. However, that part which involves human testing at effective dose levels presents security problems which cannot be handled by the ordinary contractor.[page break]-3-The proposed facility [deleted] offers a unique opportunity for the secure handling of such clinical testing in addition to the many advantages outline in the project proposal. The security problems mentioned above are eliminated by the fact that the responsibility for the testing will rest completely with the physician and the hospital. [Deleted] will allow TSS/CD personnel to supervise the work very closely to make sure that all tests are conducted according to the recognized practices and embody adequate safeguards.[Document ends]Next we have a memo from Dr Sidney Gottleib from 1953 which outlines the MK Ultra projects utilizing hypnosis.[Document begins]DRAFT-SG/111 11 May 1953MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORDSUBJECT: Visit to Project [deleted]1. On this day the writer spent the day observing experiments with Mr. [deleted] on project [deleted] and in planning next year’s work on the project (Mr. [deleted] has already submitted his proposal to the [deleted]).2. The general picture of the present status of the project is one of a carefully planned series of five major experiments. Most of the year has been spent in screening and standardizing a large group of subjects (approximately 100) and the months between now and September 1 should yield much data, so that these five experiments should be completed by September 1. The five experiments are: (N stands for the total number of subjects involved in the experiment.)Experiment 1 – N-18 Hypnotically induced anxieties to be completed by September 1.Experiment 2 – N-24 Hypnotically increasing the ability to learn and recall complex written matter, to be completed by September 1.Experiment 3 – N-30 Polygraph response under Hypnosis, to be completed by June 15.Experiment 4 – N-24 Hypnotically increasing ability to observe and recall a complex arrangement of physical objects.Experiment 5 – N-100 Relationship of personality to susceptibility to hypnosis.3. The work for next year (September 1, 1953 to June 1, 1954) will concentrate on:Experiment 6 – The morse code problem, with the emphasis on relatively loser I.Q. subjects than found on University volunteers.[page break]Experiment 7 – Recall of hypnotically acquired information by very specific signals.[deleted] will submit detailed research plans on all experiments not yet submitted.4. A system of reports was decided upon, receivable in June, September and December 1953, and in March and June, 1954. These reports besides giving a summary of progress on each of the seven experiments, will also include the raw data obtained in each experiment. At the completion of any of the experiments a complete, organized final report will be sent to us.5. After June 1, [deleted] new address will be:[deleted]6. A new journal was observed in [deleted] office:Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosispublished quarterly by the Society for CF. & E.H.publisher is Woodrow Press, Inc.227 E. 45th StreetNew York 17, N.Y.Price is $6.00To date two numbers issued, Vol. 1 #1 January 1953, and Vol. 1 #2 April 1953.7. A Very favorable impression was made on the writer by the group. The experimental design of each experiment is very carefully done, and the standards of detail and instrumentation seems to be very high.Sidney GottliebChief Chemical Division, TSSOriginal Only.-2-[Document ends]Next we have an interview with Dr. George Estabrooks. The Following are excerpts from a 1971 interview. This was more than a year before governmental records concerning MK Ultra were reportedly destroyed.Hypnosis Comes Of AgeScience Digest, April 1971 George H. Estabrooks, Ph.D., Harvard graduate (1926) and Rhodes ScholarOne of the most fascinating but dangerous applications of hypnosis is its use in military intelligence. This is a field with which I am familiar through formulating guidelines for the techniques used by the United States in two world wars.Communication in war is always a headache. Codes can be broken. A professional spy may or may not stay bought. Your own man may have unquestionable loyalty, but his judgment is always open to question. The “hypnotic courier,” on the other hand, provides a unique solution. I was involved in preparing many subjects for this work during World War II. One successful case involved an Army Service Corps Captain whom we’ll call George Smith.Captain Smith had undergone months of training. He was an excellent subject but did not realize it. I had removed from him, by post-hypnotic suggestion, all recollection of ever having been hypnotized.First I had the Service Corps call the captain to Washington and tell him they needed a report of the mechanical equipment of Division X headquartered in Tokyo. Smith was ordered to leave by jet next morning, pick up the report and return at once. Consciously, that was all he knew, and it was the story he gave to his wife and friends. Then I put him under deep hypnosis, and gave him – orally – a vital message to be delivered directly on his arrival in Japan to a certain colonel – let’s say his name was Brown – of military intelligence. Outside of myself, Colonel Brown was the only person who could hypnotize Captain Smith. This is “locking.” I performed it by saying to the hypnotized Captain: “Until further orders from me, only Colonel Brown and I can hypnotize you. We will use a signal phrase ‘the moon is clear.’ Whenever you hear this phrase from Brown or myself you will pass instantly into deep hypnosis.” When Captain Smith re-awakened, he had no conscious memory of what happened in trance. All that he was aware of was that he must head for Tokyo to pick up a division report.On arrival there, Smith reported to Brown, who hypnotized him with the signal phrase. Under hypnosis, Smith delivered my message and received one to bring back. Awakened, he was given the division report and returned home by jet. There I hypnotized him once more with the signal phrase, and he spieled off Brown’s answer that had been dutifully tucked away in his unconscious mind. The system is virtually foolproof. As exemplified by this case, the information was “locked” in Smith’s unconscious for retrieval by the only two people who knew the combination. The subject had no conscious memory of what happened, so could not spill the beans. No one else could hypnotize him even if they might know the signal phrase. Not all applications of hypnotism to military intelligence are as tidy as that. Perhaps you have read The Three Faces of Eve. The book was based on a case reported in 1905 by Dr. Morton Prince of Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard. He startled everyone in the field by announcing that he had cured a woman named Beauchamp of a split personality problem. Using post-hypnotic suggestion to submerge an incompatible, childlike facet of the patient, he’d been able to make two other sides of Mrs. Beauchamp compatible, and lump them together in a single cohesive personality. Clinical hypnotists throughout the world jumped on the multiple personality bandwagon as a fascinating frontier.By the 1920′s, not only had they learned to apply post-hypnotic suggestion to deal with this weird problem, but also had learned how to split certain complex individuals into multiple personalities like Jeckyl-Hydes. The potential for military intelligence has been nightmarish. During World War II, I worked this technique with a vulnerable Marine lieutenant I’ll call Jones. Under the watchful eye of Marine Intelligence I spilt his personality into Jones A and Jones B. Jones A, once a “normal” working Marine, became entirely different. He talked communist doctrine and meant it. He was welcomed enthusiastically by communist cells, was deliberately given a dishonorable discharge by the Corps (which was in on the plot) and became a card-carrying party member.The joker was Jones B, the second personality, formerly apparent in the conscious Marine. Under hypnosis, this Jones had been carefully coached by suggestion. Jones B was the deeper personality, knew all the thoughts of Jones A, was a loyal American, and was “imprinted” to say nothing during conscious phases.All I had to do was hypnotize the whole man, get in touch with Jones B, the loyal American, and I had a pipeline straight into the Communist camp. It worked beautifully for months with this subject, but the technique backfired. While there was no way for an enemy to expose Jones’ dual personality, they suspected it and played the same trick on us later. The use of “waking hypnosis” in counter intelligence during World War II occasionally became so involved that it taxed even my credulity. Among the most complicated ploys used was the practice of sending a perfectly normal, wide awake agent into enemy camp, after he’d been carefully coached in waking hypnosis to ‘act’ the part of a potential hypnotism subject. Trained in autosuggestion, or self-hypnosis, such a subject can pass every test used to spot a hypnotized person. Using it, he can control the rate of his heartbeat, anesthetize himself to a degree against pain of electric shock or torture.In the case of an officer we’ll call Cox, this carefully prepared counterspy was given a title to indicate he had access to top priority information. He was planted in an international cafe in a border country where it was certain there would be enemy agents. He talked too much, drank a lot, made friends with local girls, and pretended a childish interest in hypnotism. The hope was that he would blunder into a situation where enemy agents would kidnap him and try to hypnotize him, in order to extract information from him. Cox worked so well that they fell for the trick. He never allowed himself to be hypnotized during seances. While pretending to be a hypnotized subject of the foe, he was gathering and feeding back information.[End of interview]More ExperimentationIn 1942 Dr.Winfred Overholser of the OSS, the predecessor of the CIA, began research seeking a truth serum using mescaline, a drug derived from the peyote cactus. This proved ineffective as a truth serum and they began experimenting with highly potent concentrated liquid doses of Marijuana. The US government during WWII grew marijuana by the tons. The official story was that it was used for rope, and indeed the stalk was used to make rope, sacks, etc, but the bud and leaf was concentrated to create this tasteless and odorless “truth serum”. In some instances this was very effectively used during interrogation of suspected double agents and even among the scientists themselves producing the product. Its produced reactions however proved to be unstable gaining varied results among many of the test subjects so at this point again other means were sought.1944 saw the first United States efforts to recruit Nazi scientists actively in the nuclear and medical fields.1950 saw the CIA join forces with the Pentagon and a behavior modification program was initiated called “Operation Bluebird”. North Korean prisoners of war were filled with barbiturates, Benzedrine, and hypnotized before interrogation. Another goal of this program was to induce amnesia in the test subjects so that they would not recall the processes of drugging and torture. Electroshock Therapy also became a part of the mix.1953 saw transformation the OSS into the CIA. By now they had imported many of the Nazi doctors who had headed mind control and brain washing programs along with some records from the death camps which had failed to be destroyed. According to these records the Germans had obtained good results using mescaline so once again the CIA went back to the drawing board. Project Naomi had been a CIA mind control project using LSD 25. It was at this point that Project Naomi was renamed to the now infamous “MK Ultra”. MK Ultra was now the umbrella operation involving mind control, behavior modification, and interrogation. Its methods were a blending of psychosurgery, electroshock therapy, various powerful mind altering drugs, and hypnosis, while at the end producing amnesia so that the test subjects were completely unsuspecting.1967 At McGill University Dr Ewen Cameron performed experimentation for MK Ultra using Electro-shock therapy, LSD, and sensory deprivation.1974 a Defense Department contractor, J. Scapitz, sought to combine MK Ultra technology with microwave technology to produce mass effects on the world’s populace. In 1994, just 20 years later, the Department of Justice began to oversee new work conducted in Alaska for a project called HAARP. HAARP is in fact a huge microwave array. The array was again extensively upgraded in 1998.In 1988 the United States government finally settled an 8-year lawsuit brought against them by Washington Attorneys Joseph L. Rauh, Jr., and James C. Turner. The suit was settled out of court for the meager sum of $750,000.00 and was on the behalf of 8 Canadian citizens who were victimized and survived MK Ultra experimentation conducted by Ewen Cameron, who also achieved notoriety as the president of the American AND Canadian Psychological Association. It was settled out of court in the interest of “national security”.ENTER THE BUSH’SG.W. Bush’s grandfather, Prescott Bush, and his father in law, George Herbert Walker, initially made their fortune supplying the Nazi War Machine as it rolled its way through in conquest of Europe. Bush money supplied Nazi steel, gas, materials, ammo, and on and on until Prescott was charged with the trading with the enemy act. The Bush family had invested heavily in the politics and policy of the third Reich.“The Bush family fortune came from the Third Reich.”-John Loftus, former US Justice Dept. Nazi War Crimes investigator and President of the Florida Holocaust Museum quoted in the Sarasota Herald-Tribune 11/11/2000The Bush Family is tied in financially with the Carlyle group, a Bin Laden front company which has enriched its investors through buying out defense contractors. Its average annual yield for investors has been 34%, and, specializing in weaponry and defense apparatus, they are enriched financially by every major military action.When George H.W. Bush became CIA director in 1975, according to his official bio, he was the very first CIA outsider to ever be appointed director. Indeed this was a very critical time for the CIA and a very critical time for the NWO as its plans for mass mind control were about to be put to practical use, and papers were being leaked out concerning the existence of MK Ultra. Not to mention that several of the doctors involved in it had already spoken publicly concerning these diabolical deeds. This certainly was not a time for a novice, so is this part of his official bio truthful? Not according to a memo from J Edgar Hoover who referred to a, “Mr. George Bush of the CIA” who was an agent involved with Cuban exiles who later became involved in the now infamous Bay of Pigs fiasco. George Bush has publicly denied being this man. He does recall being in Texas at the time, but denies further recollection. So in all likelihood, the CIA was not at all in the hands of a novice, but possibly one of the greatest agents to have ever served it.Since Bush was the CIA’s man over the Cuban exiles that were pulled together in the failed Bay of Pigs debacle, this put him, in direct opposition to JFK and his plans for tearing down the CIA. Had Kennedy suddenly created for himself a very lethal enemy in George H.W. Bush? If so then there is much irony to all this. JFK wrote and implemented State Department Publication #7277, which is a basic 40-year blueprint to the NWO. History since then has proven that we have implemented and followed Kennedy’s plan to the ninth degree. If Bush was instrumental in the killing of JFK, then the architect of the NWO was in reality assassinated by the man that sprung it upon the world. On numerous occasions throughout his presidency, George H.W. Bush referred proudly to the New World Order and took credit for ushering it in.Former President Bush can be linked too with another assassination attempt, and there are some very intriguing details associated with the one we are about to look into.Ronald Reagan was running for his first term as President of the United States of America, of course on the republican ticket. His #1 republican opponent was George H.W. Bush, and there seemed at the time to be a certain animosity between the two. Reagan had stated publicly that he would never take Bush as his vice-presidential running mate. Of course Reagan was much more electable. He was charismatic and handled the press well. He became known as the great communicator. According to Lt. Col. “Bo” Gritz, after receiving the republican nod for presidential candidate, Reagan was invited to a meeting with the Rockerfellers in New York City where he was told,“If you do not take my head of the Trilateral Commission’” (George Bush was then head of the CFR, which has for decades been working to lead us into the NWO) “‘as your running mate, the only way you’ll see the inside of the White House is as a tourist.”Of course Reagan accepted Bush as his vice-presidential running mate, and it was only about 2 months after his inauguration, on March 30th, 1981, Reagan was shot. When the first shot rang out a secret service agent shoved Reagan into the vehicle, and we saw no wincing pain on his face, but James Brady received a shot to the head and 2 other aids were shot as well. The presidential limousine sped off and an ambulance left the scene several minutes later heading to the same hospital carrying Brady. Somehow the limousine arrived at the hospital 15 minutes after Brady arrived.According to Kitty Kelly’s biography on Nancy Reagan.“It is safe to say that Nancy Reagan hated Vice President George Bush–the ambitious CIA spy and former CIA director who seized the presidency without an election. This hatred was certainly a motivation as effective as any truth serum. (Former CIA director Richard Helms, one of twenty Reagan/Bush White House officials convicted in the Iran-Contra cocaine-for-guns/NATO-stockpiles-for-cash scandal, testified to Congress the CIA successfully completed over 60,000 assassinations. Mind-controlled assassins (MK-ULTRA torture/psychology program) were just one of the CIA’s many underhanded specialties. Reagan and Bush’s Costa Rican embassy staff–including the U.S. ambassador-was expelled from that nation for the crime of importing cocaine into the USA. As head of the CIA, Bush was certainly one of America’s more ruthless government employees.)”According to Reagan himself, he never felt any pain at all standing on the sidewalk, but it was only after being shoved in the limousine, out of the line of fire, that he felt the injury. Lt. Col. Bo Gritz, who was the man responsible for breaking the stand off between US Law enforcement and Randy Weaver who was at one time under his command, relates Reagan’s own words, as well as a few more very little known facts.“I knew I had been hurt, but I thought that I’d been hurt by the Secret Service man landing on me in the car. As it was, I must say it was the most paralyzing pain. I’ve described it as if someone hit you with a hammer. But the sensation, it seemed to me, came after I was in the car and so I thought that maybe his gun or something had broken a rib. I set up on the seat, and the pain wouldn’t go away and suddenly, I found I was coughing up blood.”It is interesting that Lt. Col. Gritz specifies that Reagan was not shot with a bullet but with a thin planchet. This certainly was inconsistent with the weapon specified as being used by Hinkley. Another interesting fact concerns the connection between John Hinkley and psychiatric wards. Remember that psychiatric wards were widely utilized by the Governments to conduct such experimentation. We should also note the present day practices in these wards and their widespread use of mind-bending drugs with these past cruel and deadly experiments are STRIKINGLY familiar. Hinkley had been in and out of these wards several times. Add to this the connection between the Hinkley family and the Bush family, who DID benefit from the attempted assassination, and we have some very seriously sadistic and evil implications.Hinkley’s father was a very wealthy man and a very large contributor to the Bush Campaigns. They were socially interactive with one another. On the day Hinkley supposedly shot Reagan, his brother was to have dinner with Neil Bush, brother to G.W. Bush and son of George H.W. Bush. Alone this is simply suspicious and a possible coincidence, but when connected with the rest of the facts there is more circumstantial evidence than convicts many people in a court of law. At this point can it be said the facts go far beyond the circumstantial?This incident (Reagan’s attempted assassination) in effect gave George H.W. Bush the presidency, and indeed it was after this event that he, Ollie North and others concocted the guns for drugs deals. It was a very likely MK Ultra victim that became the obvious patsy.In the 1940s, Eli Lilly pharmaceuticals oversaw MK Ultra experiments using mescaline and LSD. George Bush has been a director of Eli Lilly as well as director of the CIA at a time when much paperwork concerning MK Ultra accidentally surfaced.Did the MK Ultra legacy pass from father to son? There is an interesting tie concerning G.W. Bush. While Governor of Texas, he oversaw the execution of 130 inmates.Karla Faye Tucker was an abused wife who had murdered her husband, served several years, gave her life to Christ and had a very effective prison ministry. Christians all over the nation were pleading for her life… even Pat Robertson tried to intervene and asked GW for a stay of execution for her. It did no good, she was executed and GW publicly made fun of her in a television interview.The truth is that GW only handed out 1 stay of execution during his tenure as Texas Governor despite all of the legitimate claims of innocence involving several of those who were executed. The ONLY stay of execution he granted was to Henry Lee Lucas, who was a PROVEN mass murderer, and was linked to well over 300 murders. Lucas claimed that these were hits and that he was part of a ring who murdered, kidnapped, cannibalized and practiced Satanism, and that top politicians were involved. It is very likely that Lucas too was a victim of MK Ultra technology. Lucas claims the Central Intelligence Agency was involved. The truth is when one compares the facts of MK Ultra as given by the ver men involved, with the life of Henry Lee Lucas we see very chilling similarities in the mode of operation, which is similar too to the experiences of John Hinkley. Lucas was in and out of mental institutions several for years of his life. There were times when he was tied down in bed and drugged for weeks at a time to the point that he has no memory of the events that transpired during his stay. These were the very techniques used, along with hypnosis, in order to create assassins, as was stated by the very doctors who conducted the “programs”.Who these “top politicians” were that he worked for (and who also were closet Satan worshippers) he never publicly stated, but G.W. Bush DID give Henry Lee Lucas the ONLY pardon he ever handed out in a sudden uncharacteristic display of his new found compassionate conservatism. It seems though that just as suddenly as he found this compassion, he immediately lost it again after Lucas’ execution, as the executions were resumed at a frenzied pace. Also G.W., being a Skull and Bonesman is no novice to satanic activity.The facts concerning kidnapped victims being taken to Matemoros and Juarez Mexico revealed by Lucas were established in later years when at an abandoned farm located just outside that city, the US government began digging up bodies of men and women who had been tortured and killed. There seems too to have been strange privileges granted to Lucas during his incarceration. According to Jim Boutwell, Sheriff of Williamson County, Texas, “Henry is an unusual prisoner. He’s been given a high security cell and a few special amenities…”Lucas had served 10 years in prison on a prior account of murder, and was released in 1970. He claims that then he was recruited and trained at a paramilitary camp located in the Florida Everglades. Perhaps adding weight to his story, in addition to the facts of MK Ultra and how these same techniques were documented to be used on him, we have this testimony from Lt. Commander Thomas Narut taken from Harry V. Martin and David Caul, “Mind Control”, Napa Valley Sentinel, August-November 1991″.”The information was divulged at an Oslo NATO conference of 120 psychologists from the eleven nation alliance … The Navy provided all the funding necessary, according To Narut. Dr. Narut, in a question and answer session with reporters from many nations, revealed how the Navy was secretly programming large numbers of assassins. He said that the men he had worked with for the Navy were being prepared for commando-type operations, as well as covert operations in U.S. embassies worldwide. He described the men who went through his program as ‘hit men and assassins’ who could kill on command. Careful screening of the subjects was accomplished by Navy psychologists through the military records … and many were convicted murderers serving military prison sentences.”[End of Article]Another interesting fact that seems to verify the information given by Lucas concerning kidnapping, murder and mind control experimentation being conducted in Matamoros and Juarez Mexico, involves Rafael Resendez-Ramirez. He had stalked the railway systems in America’s west in the 1980′s murdering viscously and randomly as he terrorized all those whom lived near a railroad in California. He fit perfectly the scenario given by Lucas. Ramirez was openly a Satan worshipper, and a very cold-blooded murderer. He was amazingly born in Matamoros Mexico and crossed the border into the U.S. from Juarez Mexico, the 2 very cities Lucas claimed dark elements of our Government performed these despicable deeds. According to Ramirez’ mother, “strangers” at a farm outside Matemorus raised him. By taking the facts of the Lucas story and comparing it with the facts of the Ramirez story, it seems we have much more than coincidence. Certainly according to today’s standards, enough evidence to indite our government for cruel and unusual punishment and conspiracy to murder among several other charges.This brings us from Operation Paperclip in the 1940s to MK Ultra type manipulation no matter the project name, through the 1980s and into the 90′s. It also shows the high level involvement of the US intelligence agencies including inditing such men as G.H.W. Bush and likely as well his son G.W..Bringing It Up To Date With MASS Mind ControlThus far we have examined a condensed history of individual mind control projects conducted by the U.S. government. Now we should ask the question, “What about MASS mind control?”Let me submit that individual mind manipulation has served dark elements of our overnment well, and has only served to create confusion and anxiety in our society throughout recent decades. This in turn has caused the U.S. population to cry out for more and more called for more government intervention, which seems to be the effect worked and hoped for by those who would lead us into the New World Order. Add to this SDP #7277 authored by President Kennedy in 1959 when he was then a Senator, and it is apparent that bringing in the New World Order is not at all a foreign agenda, but an American government agenda. We should also see that the CFR, the TLC, the League of Nations, the UN and such are ALL American government creations. In order to bring in these nefariously well-laid plans to fruition however it would seem that more is necessary. Something must be done beyond the individual level, and even beyond the national level. Some of the objectives may be.A. People of the world and in each individual nation should be segregated into smaller groups that can be easily manipulated by various means of psychological techniques. For instance separating black from white, rich from poor, protestant from catholic, democrat from republican, etc.B. These smaller groups much be further divided to create even more division, which will allow for distraction of the masses as a whole and to keep them from banding together in order to stand against New World Order agenda.C. Finding a way to stress out the masses in order to keep them distracted from real events in their pursuit to simply survive.D. Finding a way to further lull the masses into a state preventing them from thinking on their own and actually examining situations around them and in the world.These are just a few main points of problems that have had to be addressed and overcome, though this is simply a minuscule example. It is the writer’s hope however to show the reader that these problems have not only been addressed, but that they have already been tackled and the “world community”, especially citizens of the United States, are in actuality now nothing more than a sleeping brainwashed society.Enter HAARPHAARP is an acronym for “HIGH FREQUENCY ACTIVE AURORAL RESEARCH PROGRAM”.According to the government’s official web site concerning HAARP, it is a research station located on 30+ acres of land owned by the U.S. Department of Defense.We are also strangely informed by the same official site, “Technical expertise and procurement services as required for the management, administration and evaluation of the program are being provided cooperatively by the Air Force (Air Force Research Laboratory) and Navy (Office of Naval Research and Naval Research Laboratory). Since HAARP consists of many individual items of scientific equipment, both large and small, there is a considerable list of commercial, academic and government organizations.”One might ask, “What is a research facility intended to simply study our atmosphere doing on DoD property?” The answer may well lie in revealing what HAARP’s actual functions. HAARP consists of a phased array of 180 towers placed 80′ apart in a 1000′ by 1200′ grid. 2 antennas that transmit ELF and VLF waves, ranging from 2.8 to 7 MHz (VLF) and from 7 to 10 MHz, (ELF) into the atmosphere top each tower. The array is powered from 30 shelters, each responsible for powering 6 towers. Each shelter contains 6 pairs of 10 kW Transmitters, allowing for a 3600 kW transmission from the array. The signal can be focused strongly to a single area or dispersed over a wide range. There are several such sites placed around the world elf wave transmitting sites worldwide.Most who are familiar with HAARP however, are usually only familiar with the one Alaskan facility, thinking it to be the sole such facility. Nearly No one is today aware of the many other sites such as the ones located in Puerto Rico, South Africa, and the several in the former Soviet Union. It is an interesting side-note that the project was conceived and experimented with beginning in the 1950′s according to our own government. Not coincidentally this is the time frame that MK Ultra was operating carte blanche and in full swing. What is the significance of this (HAARP) in respect to mass mind control? The answer lies in the effect of ELF waves on both the human brain and the human body.To understand the effect of elf waves on the human brain, we need to understand first a little bit concerning the differing patterns and wavelengths, which we as humans normally function in.DELTA brainwaves are in the 0.5 to 4 cycles per second range, and are generated from the forward part of the brain. This pattern is normally associated with very deep sleep and some eastern mystics achieve this state while awake but in a very deep meditation.THETA brainwaves are in the range of 4 to 7 cycles per second. This pattern is associated with light sleep and deep rest. Creativity and inspired though often accompany this state. How often have you almost been asleep and an idea or solution suddenly hit?ALPHA brainwaves are almost non existent in children under 10 years of age. This wave pattern is generating at 7 to 12 cycles per second. This is a very interesting pattern. It is a pattern, which prevents concentration. It is highly susceptible to suggestibility. In other words a person operating in this pattern is easily led, even against their will. It can be pleasant and even euphoric. For some reason these days most men and women are operating throughout their waking hours in the alpha wave state.BETA brainwaves run a wide range from 13 to 27 cycles per second. These waves should seemingly be the optimum pattern for humans to walk and work in during their waking hours. These patterns allow us to analyze things and situations and more readily allow the human brain to focus on external stimulation. It is associated with alert mental activity.GAMMA brainwaves are sometimes called hyper-beta waves and operate above 27 cycles per second. These can be associated with hyperactivity or quick sudden bursts of physical activity.Bearing these in mind, it is important to know that both the brain and the body become effected by outside ELF stimuli. Differing frequencies have differing effects as well from a feeling of euphoria, to extreme dizziness and sickness and confusion, to the accelerated growth of cancerous cells, sometimes as much as 6X or more. One of the more interesting effects is the fact that frequencies between 8 and 12 Hz can actually “entrain” the human brainwave.What is meant by the “entraining” of one’s brain? If one’s brain is operating at 15 cycles per second, we saw that they are operating in the “Beta” brainwave pattern. This also as we saw it the optimum pattern for analysis and thinking and examining outside stimuli. If this normally operating brain is then exposed to elf waves in the frequency of 8 to 12 cycles per second, as a chameleon changes its color, so too does the brainwave change from Beta patterns to an Alpha pattern, exactly matching the pattern of the outside source. This change takes place in some brains immediately upon outside contact.br> What is the significance of these findings?The brain should normally work in the Beta pattern through normal working hours. However an outside source emitting ELF waves can throw it into an Alpha pattern which is a pattern which disallows concentration and focus and deep examination, throwing the subject into a state that is very easy to lead by suggestion. In other words a person in this state is easily brainwashed. They cannot focus on the realities of the things that are going on about them and scrutinize them. One living in this state lives a shallow life of eat drink and be merry, are easily entertained and distracted. Some sit in front of the television soaking up any and all propaganda they are fed. The live a mentally shallow life and do not even realize it because it becomes a norm.The HAARP transmitters, as well as similar transmitters worldwide transmit varying frequencies. The frequencies most used are within the range that would effect the brain throwing it from the Beta state to the Alpha. To see the effect all we need do is to look at the easily influenced zombified society we live in.Another interesting side-note. Many of the readers will remember the old commercial about marijuana, where we see EEG results being displayed. We see high consistent spikes and hear the words, “This is your brain”.Next we see the spikes level off until all we see is nearly a straight line as we hear the ominous words, “This is your brain on Marijuana”. What is NOT being explained is the TRUE effects of marijuana on the human brainwave patterns. What we see being displayed in that commercial are ALPHA waves. According to ALL reputable studies from the likes of Cornell University and many many more, marijuana does lower the Alpha pattern BUT it throws the brain back into BETA where it performs its BEST thinking and in depth examination. It allows for deeper scrutiny.It has also been shown to improve the malignant effects of lower frequency ELF wave on the human body such as in the fact it is a cancer retardant.Many questions are raised by these facts.Why has the US and Russia built these transmitters worldwide? Knowing these are great men of science are we to believe that they are unaware of the brainwashing effects of the ELF waves they are producing? .Or is this pattern effecting our minds to the point we will not even ask the question or look into it further or simply not care? Marijuana has been proven not to work as we saw earlier in brainwashing techniques. It was tried and dropped by Sidney Gottleib and others. It is proven by university research to be beneficial to the body and to move the brain from an Alpha brainwave patter to its proper Beta brainwave pattern. Is this the reason what has been labeled by leading university research, as being the safest and most beneficial drug on earth has been deemed illegal?ConclusionBy putting these facts and questions in their proper place alongside the facts of the MK Ultra program we can see that US intelligence has sought for over half a century to learn how to manipulate and brainwash and use mankind. This has been accomplished stunningly on both the individual level and on the masses of mankind as a whole, worldwide.The effects of all this has been astounding. Violent hit men have been created to terrorize this nation and indeed the world through drugs and modern psychological efforts. These same men have been released time and again back into the streets because the powers that be have flooded our prison system with lesser and non-violent offenders and therefore created an excuse for early releases. Mass murderers such as Henry Lee Lucas, who has PROVEN links to MK Ultra experimentation and high level politicians, have been frankly pardoned.Add to this that society is programmed to live in the Alpha brainwave pattern and not the Beta by use of HAARP transmitters worldwide. They cannot think to deeply examine, and are open to suggestion, so when we see the violence in the streets, and staged events such as the 9-11 tragedy, instead of looking at the glaring facts they receive the suggestion of the media’s brainwashing and call out for more government control.They allow acts such as the Homeland Security acts and the Patriot acts to pass, stripping us of all our civil rights in the name of security from the things created by their very own government. What is the motivation of our high level politicians who ARE in the know? State Department Publication #7277, authored by Senator JFK in 1959 and enacted as US policy under his presidency in 1961 prove that the official US agenda is worldwide domination through use of building up the United Nations. This is allowing for the steam-rolling agenda for the bringing in of the New World Order to proceed unchallenged, all the while brainwashing and manipulating the people into calling for it in the name of peace and security.Indeed as was prophesied, we have perpetrated upon the world, a great delusion causing the world’s populations to receive and believe lies.God Bless you allEric Jewelleditor@firstname.lastname@example.org February 28, 2003