Tree of the knowledge of good and evil
In Jewish tradition, the Tree of Knowledge and the eating of its fruit represents the beginning of the mixture of good and evil together. Before that time, the two were separate, and evil had only a nebulous existence in potentia. While free choice did exist before eating the fruit, evil existed as an entity separate from the human psyche, and it was not in human nature to desire it. Eating and internalizing the forbidden fruit changed this and thus was born the yeitzer hara, the Evil Inclination.
In Judaism, yetzer hara (Hebrew: יֵצֶר הַרַע, for the definite "the evil inclination"), or yetzer ra (Hebrew: יֵצֶר רַע, for the indefinite "an evil inclination") refers to the inclination to do evil, by violating the will of God. The term is drawn from the phrase "the imagination of the heart of man [is] evil" (Hebrew: יֵצֶר לֵב הָאָדָם רַע,yetzer lev-ha-adam ra), which occurs twice in the Hebrew Bible, at Genesis 6:5 and 8:21.
Traditionally, a person's indulgence of either the good or evil impulse is seen as a matter of free choice. For example, Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, wrote in Derech Hashem ("The Way of God") that :
"Man is the creature created for the purpose of being drawn close to God. He is placed between perfection and deficiency, with the power to earn perfection. Man must earn this perfection, however, through his own free will...Man's inclinations are therefore balanced between good (Yetzer HaTov) and evil (Yetzer HaRa), and he is not compelled toward either of them. He has the power of choice and is able to choose either side knowingly and willingly..."
Rashi notes that the first sin came about because Eve added an additional clause to the Divine command:"Neither shall you touch it." [By saying this, Eve] added to the command, and thereby came to detract [from it]. This is as it is written [Proverbs 30:6], "Do not add to His Words."
In Kabbalah , the sin of the Tree of Knowledge (called Cheit Eitz HaDa'at) brought about the great task of beirurim , sifting through the mixture of good and evil in the world to extract and liberate the sparks of holiness trapped therein. Since evil has no independent existence, it depends on holiness to draw down the Divine life-force, on whose "leftovers" it then feeds and derives existence. Once evil is separated from holiness through beirurim, its source of life is cut off, causing the evil to disappear. This is accomplished through observance of the 613 commandments in the Torah, which deal primarily with physical objects wherein good and evil are mixed together. Thus, the task of beirurim rectifies the sin of the Tree and draws the Shechinah back down to earth, where the sin of the Tree had caused Her to depart.
In Christian theology, consuming the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil was the original sin committed by Adam and Eve that subsequently became known as the Fall of man in Genesis 2-3.
In Western Christian art, the fruit of the tree is commonly depicted as the apple, which originated in central Asia. This depiction may have originated as a Latin pun: by eating the malum (apple), Eve contracted mālum (evil). or simply because of religious artists' poetic licence.
The Qur'an does not name this tree and it is always referred to as "the tree". Muslims believe that when God created Adam and Eve, He told them that they could enjoy everything in the Garden but this tree, and so, Satan appeared to them and told them that the only reason God forbade them to eat from that tree is that they would become Angels or become immortals.
When they ate from this tree their nakedness appeared to them and they began to sew together, for their covering, leaves from the Garden. As a result of their sin, they were removed from heaven and placed on Earth to live and die. Consequently, they repented to God and asked for his forgiveness and were forgiven. It was decided that those who obey God and follow his path shall be rewarded with everlasting life in Heaven, and those who disobey God and stray away from his path shall be punished in Hell.
God in Quran (Al-A'raf 27) states:
"[O] Children of Adam! Let not Satan tempt you as he brought your parents out of the Garden, stripping them of their garments to show them their shameful parts. Surely he [Satan] sees you, he and his tribe, from where you see them not. We have made the Satans the friends of those who do not believe."
Demonsis the systematic study of demons or beliefs about demons. It is the branch of theology relating to superhuman beings who are not gods. It deals both with benevolent beings that have no circle of worshippers or so limited a circle as to be below the rank of gods, and with malevolent beings of all kinds. The original sense of "demon", from the time of Homer onward, was a benevolent being, but in English the name now holds connotations of malevolence. (In order to keep the distinction, when referring to the word in its original Greek meaning English uses the spelling "Daemon" or "Daimon".)
When regarded as spirits, may belong to either of the classes of spirits recognized by primitive Animism ; that is to say, they may be human, or non-human, separable souls, or discarnate spirits which have never inhabited a body. A sharp distinction is often drawn between these two classes, notably by the Melanesians , several African groups, and others; the Arab jinn, for example, are not reducible to modified human souls; at the same time these classes are frequently conceived as producing identical results, e.g. diseases.
The Lesser Key of SolomonThe word demonology is from Greek δαίμooν, daimōn, "divinity, divine power, god"; and -λογία, -logia. | HERE
The Lesser Key of Solomon or Clavicula Salomonis Regis (the Clavicula Salomonis, or Key of Solomon is an earlier text referring to different material), is an anonymous 17th-century grimoire, and one of the most popular books of demonology. It has also long been widely known as the Lemegeton. [ SOURCE ]
The Lesser Key of Solomon is divided into five parts.1 Ars Goetia ( The 72 Demons)
2 Ars Theurgia Goetia
3 Ars Paulina
4 Ars Almadel
5 Ars Notoria
1) Ars Goetia
Contains descriptions of the seventy-two demons that Solomon is said to have evoked and confined in a brass vessel sealed by magic symbols, and that he obliged to work for him. It gives instructions on constructing a similar brass vessel, and using the proper magic formulae to safely call up those demons.The 72 Demons [ Pseudomonarchia Daemonum ]
2) Ars Theurgia Goetia
It explains the names, characteristics and seals of the 31 aerial spirits (called chiefs, emperors, kings and princes) that King Solomon ( PBUH ) invoked and confined. It also explains the protections against them, the names of their servant spirits, the conjurations to invoke them, and their nature, that is both good and evil. Their sole objective is to discover and show hidden things, the secrets of any person, and obtain, carry and do anything asked to them meanwhile they are contained in any of the four elements (Earth, Fire, Air and Water).
3) Ars Paulina
The Ars Paulina was already known since the Middle Ages. It is divided in two chapters in this book.
The first chapter refers on how to deal with the angels of the several hours of the day (meaning day and night), to their seals, their nature, their servants (called Dukes), the relation of these angels with the seven planets known at that time, the proper astrological aspects to invoke them, their names (in a couple of cases coinciding with two of the seventy-two demons mentioned in the Ars Goetia), the conjuration and the invocation to call them, the Table of practice.
The second chapter concerns the angels that rule over the zodiacal signs and each degree of every sign, their relation with the four elements, Fire, Earth, Water and Air, their names, and their seals. These are called here the angels of men, because all persons are born under a zodiacal sign, with the Sun at a specific degree of it.
The Shemhamphorasch is a corruption of the Hebrew term Shem ha-Mephorash (שם המפורש), which was used in tannaitic times to refer to the Tetragrammaton. In early Kabbalah, the term was used to designate sometimes a 72-letter name for God, and sometimes a 42-letter name. Rashi said Shem ha-Mephorash was used for a 42-letter name, but Maimonides thought Shem ha-Mephorash was used only for the four letter Tetragrammaton.
Kircher Diagram of the names of God
A 216-letter name for God is found in Jewish Kabbalistic sources (mentioned by Tosafot as well as by the Kabbalists) as well as in Christian Kabbalah and in Hermetic Qabalah, derived from the 72 groups of three letters, each of these triplets being the name of an angel or intelligence.
Spelling variants include Shemhamforash, Shemhamphorae, Shemhamphorash,Shemahamphorasch, Shemhamphoresh, Shem ha-Mephoresh, Shem ha-Mephorash, Shemhamphoresch, shem hamitfaresh.
4) Ars Almadel
The Ars Almadel (The Art of the Almadel) is the fourth part of The Lesser Key of Solomon. It tells how to make the almadel, which is a wax tablet with protective symbols drawn on it. On it are placed four candles. This chapter has the instructions concerning the colours, materials and rituals necessary for the construction of the almadel and the candles.
5) Ars NotoriaThe Ars Almadel also tells about the angels that are to be invoked, and explains that only reasonable and just things that are needed must be asked to them, and how the conjuration has to be made. It also mentions twelve princes ruling with them. The dates and astrological aspects that have to be considered most convenient to invoke the angels are detailed but briefly.
The Ars Notoria (The Notable Art) is the fifth and last part of The Lesser Key of Solomon.
It contains a collection of prayers (some of them divided in several parts) mixed with kabbalistic and magical words in several languages (i.e. Hebrew, Greek, etc.), how the prayers must be said, and the relation that these rituals have to the understanding of all sciences. It mentions the aspects of the Moon in relation with the prayers. It also says that the prayers act as an invocation to God's angels. According to the book, the correct spelling of the prayers gives the knowledge of the science related to each one and also a good memory, stability of mind, and eloquence. This chapter presents the precepts that have to be observed to obtain a good result.
Finally, it tells how King Solomon received the revelation from the angel.
|Albero della Vita di Davide Tonato|
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through supposed communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Solomon In Islamic tradition,Some religions have religious texts which they view as divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired. For instance, Orthodox Judaism holds that the Torah was received from God on biblical Mount Sinai, and Muslims consider the Qur'an to have been revealed word by word and letter by letter. In Hinduism some Vedas are considered apauruṣeya, i.e. "not human compositions", and are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called śruti, i.e. "what is heard". Many Christians believe that the Old and New Testaments were inspired by God. The 15,000 handwritten pages produced by the mystic Maria Valtorta were represented as direct dictations from Jesus, while she attributed The Book of Azariah to her guardian angel.In the Abrahamic religions, the term is used to refer to the process by which God reveals knowledge of himself, his will, and his divine providence, to the world of human beings. Revelation from a supernatural source is of lesser importance in some other religious traditions, such as Taoism and Confucianism. In secondary usage, it refers to the resulting human knowledge about God, prophecy, and other divine things.
Solomon was a prophet and a messenger from Allah SWT (God). As in Jewish tradition, he was the youngest son of King David (Dawud), who is also considered a prophet by Islam. Solomon had diverse talents, wisdom and spiritual insight, so his father had made him his heir.The Qur'an says: "And We verily gave knowledge to Dawud and Sulayman and they said: praise be to God (Allah) Who has preferred us above many of his believing servants". (27:15)Unlike Jewish and Christian traditions, Islam denies that Solomon fell into idolatry or turned away from Allah in any way, and views him as famed throughout the lands for his wisdom and fair judgments.
"And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah confirming what was with them, a party of those who were given the scripture threw away the book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know. And they followed what the devils gave out falsely of magic of the reign of Solomon; for Solomon did not disbelieve but the devils disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels Harut and Marut, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) until they had said: we are only for trial, so don't disbelieve. And from them (magicians) people learn that through which they would cause separation between a person and his spouse, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's leave; and they learn that which harms them rather than profits them. And indeed they knew that its practitioner would have no share in the Hereafter. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their own selves if they but knew" (2:101-2).
Solomon also appears in the Qur'an, where he is called سليمان in Arabic, which is transliterated in English as Sulayman, Suleiman, Sulaimaan etc.
The Qur'an refers to Sulayman as the son of David (Arabic: Dawud, Dawood, or Dawoud), a prophet and a great ruler with tremendous wisdom, favor, and special powers (like his father). Sulayman ruled not only people, but also hosts of Jinn, understood the language of the birds and ants, and was some of the hidden glory in the world that was not accessible to most other human beings.
He ruled a large kingdom that extended south into Yemen, via the queen of Sheba who accepted Solomon's prophethood and religion. He was famed throughout the lands for his wisdom.
The Qur'an denies that Solomon ever turned away from Allah.
And they followed what the Shayatin (devils) chanted of sorcery in the reign of Sulaiman, and Sulaiman was not an unbeliever, but the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved, they teach people sorcery and such things that came down to the two angels at Babel, Harut and Marut, yet they (the two Angels) taught no person until they had said to them, "Surely, we are only a trial, therefore do not be a disbeliever. " So they learn from them (the two Angels) that by which they might cause a separation between a man and his wife; and they cannot hurt with it any one except with Allah's permission, and they learned what harmed them and did not profit them, and certainly they know that he who bought it should have no share of good in the hereafter and evil was the price for which they sold their souls, had they but known this. [Quran 2:102]
Solomon was also given control over various things, such as the wind, and transportation:
And to Solomon (We subjected) the wind, its morning (stride from sunrise till midnoon) was a month's (journey), and its afternoon (stride from the midday decline of the sun to sunset) was a month's (journey i. e. in one day he could travel two months' journey). And We caused a fount of (molten) brass to flow for him, and there were jinn that worked in front of him, by the Leave of his Lord, And whosoever of them turned aside from Our Command, We shall cause him to taste of the torment of the blazing Fire. [Quran 34:12]
And Solomon, accordingly grateful of Allah, says:
"O ye people! We have been taught the speech of birds, and on us has been bestowed from everything: this is indeed the Grace manifest (from God). " [Quran 27:16]According to Muslim tradition, when Solomon died he was watching the work of his Jinn, while leaning on his cane. There he silently died, but did not fall. He remained in this position, and the Jinn, thinking he was still alive watching them work, kept working. But termites were eating the cane, the body fell after 40 days. Thereafter, the Jinn and all humans wished they could know more than Allah had allotted them to know:
Then, when We decreed (Solomon's) death, nothing showed them his death except a little worm of the earth, which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his staff: so when he fell down, the Jinns saw plainly that if they had known the unseen, they would not have tarried in the humiliating Penalty (of their Task). [Quran 34:14]