FDA Hid Research That Damned AspartameFatal Studies Should Have Blocked NutraSweet ApprovalBy Dr. Betty Martini, D.HumLike Us? HERE
When the G.D. Searle Co. sought FDA approval for NutraSweet they submitted doctored, fraudulent "studies," so corrupt that the Department of Justice appointed two prosecutors to Investigate Searle. Searle's lawyers hired the prosecutors and the case died with the statute of limitations.
Listen in on aspartame hearings in 1976 between Senator Ted Kennedy and FDA Commissioner Alexander Schmidt at the Senate Subcommittee on Labor and Public Health:
- Commissioner Schmidt: "Today I would like to report to you the final results of the Food and Drug Administration's detailed investigation of animal studies performed by Searle."
- Senator Kennedy: "Is this the first time, to your knowledge, that such a problem has been uncovered of this magnitude by the Food and Drug Administration?"
- Dr. Schmidt: "It is certainly the first time that such an extensive and detailed examination of this kind has taken place. We have never before conducted such an examination as we did at Searle. From time to time, we have been aware of isolated problems, but we were not aware of the extent of the problem in one pharmaceutical house."
- Senator Kennedy: "The extensive nature of the almost unbelievable range of abuses discovered by the FDA on several major Searle products is profoundly disturbing."
Yet, a year later, look what happened!
The 1977 Bressler Report, even without the concealed studies, clearly revealed fraud. Searle deleted what they didn't want FDA to see, even excised the brain tumors from rats, and put them back in the study. After death they resurrected them on paper.
Chief FDA Scientist, Dr. Thomas Xavier Collins, investigated two mice teratology (birth defects) studies. The incompetent Searle employee who reviewed studies had but a single year of experience: worked on rabbit populations for the Illinois Wildlife Service! The studies were a travesty, like all Searle's studies submitted to FDA.
When the Bressler Report was retyped, FDA omitted the investigation of these two studies, not wanting the public to see how bad they were. We have now restored these studies to the Bressler Report, thanks to Dr. John Olney and Dr. Madelon Price. We also thank Jerome Bressler for his constant persistence in motivating us to locate these studies. He emphasized the report was not complete without them. Dr. Thomas Xavier Collins was the Chief Scientist and FDA struck his name from the record. Thanks also to Lane Shore, Mission Possible Chicago who has worked tirelessly in this effort for years.
H. J. Roberts, M.D., who testified before Congress and wrote the 1000 page medical text, Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic, HERE, unsuccessfully tried to get a copy of the deficient and misleading "studies" through his congressman 8 years ago. Dr. Roberts explains: "These studies are part of the reason the FDA tried to indict the manufacturer for fraud.
The results were kept under FDA seal for 3 decades. Indeed the Bressler Report and other studies should have precluded FDA from approving aspartame for human consumption. For instance, its unconscionable that brain tumors were actually removed from the rats.
I have detailed the striking rise of brain tumors that began after aspartame approval... HERE
"The consequences are now evidence in the explosive rise of brain tumors nationally. The cluster of brain tumors in my own community serves as an example. The analysis of drinking water fails to demonstrate other chemical contaminants. My recent book, 'A Manifesto for American Medicine' details these and other related problems and the still ignored epidemic of aspartame disease is an unconscionable result of which both the population and its children will have to pay." Some of the details of these two studies left out of the Bressler Report were scientifically objectionable and again should have precluded the FDA approving it for human use. As an example, one fetus showed hydrocephalus. Increased intracranial venous pressure can lead to either pseudotumor cerebri or hydrocephalus. I have already written a report on my clinical insights concerning a remediable cause of pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) due to aspartame several years ago and now there are 20 cases in my data base" HERE
[Both concealed studies are mouse studies. One of the investigators with initials that appear to be CLT struck through the word "rats" on page 2 and marked it "mouse". Jerome Bressler said they were mouse studies.]
The hidden studies are returned to the Bressler Report at thebottom of the report. HERENow it gets worse. Here is a 1/10/94 letter from FDA to Barbara Alexander Mullarkey that lists "Pivotal Studies" for aspartame approval.
"Dear Mrs. Mullarkey: This is in response to your July 26 request, for an answer from the Commissioner on the question: "Of the 112 studies, in the Index of Master File No. 134 for Aspartame, A Nutritive Sweetener with Flavor Enhancing Properties, which are considered pivotal for approval?"
The following studies were considered pivotal.Entry No. FAMF 134 Title
- E-5 An Evaluation of Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Potential in the Rat (SC-18862)
- E-11 Two Generation Reproduction Study in Rats (SC-18862)
- E-28 106 Week Oral Toxicity Dog Study (SC-18862)
- E-32 52-WEEK ORAL TOXICITY IN THE INFANT MONKEY (SC-18862)
- E-33 Appendix: Two Year Toxicity Study in the Rat (SC-18862)
- E-34 Two Year Toxicity Study in the Rat (SC-18862)
- E-70 Lifetime Toxicity Study in the Rat (SC-18862)
- E-75 104-Week Toxicity in the Mouse (SC-18862)
- E-76 110-Week Toxicity Study in the Mouse (SC-19192)
- E-77 & 78 115-Week Oral Tumorigenicity Study in the Rat (SC-19192)
- E-86 A Supplemental Study of Dog Brains from a 106-Week Oral Toxicity Study (SC-18862)
- E-87 A Supplemental Study of Rat Brains from Two Tumorigenicity Studies (SC-18862)
- E-89 An Evaluation of Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Potential in the Mouse (SC-18862)
- E-90 An Evaluation of Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Potential in the Rabbit (SC-18862)
"We also note there were other studies of interest in considering the safety review for aspartame approval.Sincerely yours,Rudolph Harris, Ph.D., Branch ChiefNovel Ingredients Branch, HFS-207Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition"
So thus, we arrive at the plain admission by the FDA that they used E-5 and E89, the concealed faulty studies, to approve aspartame; Jerome Bressler said these were the worst ones. " Pivotal" means studies from which data will be used to make significant claims; of vital or crucial importance.
It doesn't stop there. Notice E-32 is a 52-week oral toxicity infant monkey study. In this study 5 of 7 infant monkeys had grand mal seizures and 1 died. HERE E-32 is FDA ADMISSION that aspartame triggers seizures. Yet they used it to approve the poison. FDA's report of 92 aspartame symptoms from coma to death lists 4 types of seizures.
In 1986 Atty Jim Turner and the Community Nutrition Institute filed a Citizens Petition to ban aspartame because of seizures and blinding. FDA refused, even though they knew it for years.
Turner, who tried to stop approval said today: "Any rational interpretation of pivotal studies would have caused any reasonable individual to deny approval of aspartame. Every scientist that looked at the pivotal studies said they don't support safety of NutraSweet and did not support its approval."
Aspartame was approved through the political chicanery of Don Rumsfeld who was CEO of G. D. Searle and a member of President Reagan's transition team (one of the ugliest, darkest chapters in the checkered history of the FDA). Reagan appointed Arthur Hayes as FDA Commissioner and fired FDA Commissioner Jere Goyan who was going to sign the petition revoking aspartame into law. Reagan wrote an Executive Order making FDA powerless to sign that petition until Hayes arrived to kill it. Obviously Hayes didn't care what the pivotal studies showed. In the movie, "Sweet Misery: A Poisoned World", Atty Turner explains what happened. HERE
This criminal malfeasance by FDA precipitated what Dr. James Bowen said twenty years ago is
"mass poisoning of the US and over 70 countries of the world".
Food Standards in New Zealand in 2007 admitted they never did studies on aspartame and relied on FDA. In England a business proposition was used to approve it. Parliament had a blowout and the story was published in the Guardian. No studies were done in the UK. By now 100 nations have rubberstamped G. D. Searle' fraudulent and corrupt data with FDA's blessing so Don Rumsfeld's aspartame disease has become a plague upon all mankind. .
Dr. Ralph Walton today said: "Aspartame should never have been approved and furthermore, the FDA scientists at the time did not want it approved but they were over-ruled by the FDA Commissioner, Arthur Hull Hayes. It was a unilateral decision, a political decision and not one based on medical and scientific data."
Our lives and health are sacrificed to an addictive, excitoneurotoxic, genetically engineered, carcinogenic drug that damages the mitochondria and even interacts with drugs and vaccines. It is used in the US by half of the population, creating an incredible epidemic of diseases described in Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic by H. J. Roberts, M.D. and Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills by neurosurgeon Russell Blaylock, M.D, for starters.
Dr. Roberts is a diabetic specialist and says aspartame can not only precipitate diabetes but also simulates and aggravates diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy, destroys the optic nerve, causes diabetics to go into convulsions and even interacts with insulin.
So we have epidemics of diabetes, obesity, MS, lupus, autism, ALS and other horrors because of the malfeasance of Arthur Hull Hayes and the political chicanery of Don Rumsfeld. Lives have been destroyed across the planet while FDA continues to lie on its safety with full knowledge of toxicity.
Dr. Ken Stoller, pediatrician, who has the New Mexico Aspartame Detox Center also looked over the investigation of the concealed studies.
He said, "These are scientifically offensive "studies". The manufacturer did everything it could to whitewash aspartame as was done in other studies investigated in the Bressler Report where it was found Searle excised brain tumors from rats, added them back to the study and resurrected them on paper when they died. Who persuaded FDA to delete Dr. Collins investigation of these teratology studies that should have been on public record? They even removed his name from the report. Aspartame is a teratogen, triggers birth defects and mental retardation, yet there is no warning to pregnant women. With the CDC now saying autism is 1% of the children and still a supposed "mystery" allowing known neurotoxins into the food chain is insanity."
One thing about the aspartame industry they know how to use influence and power and money, and they know how to do flawed studies. Monsanto bought Searle in 1985 and later sold NutraSweet. Here's how they abused science:HERE
The aspartame industry says 200 studies proved aspartame safety. These objectionable, inferior and worthless studies prove nothing but fraud and cover-up, and the FDA's own toxicologist, Dr. Jacqueline Verrett said they were built on a foundation of sand. Dr. Verrett testified to the U.S. Senate in 1987 and stated that flawed tests conducted by Searle used as the basis of FDA approval were a disaster and should have been thrown out. She said she believed the studies left many unanswered questions about possible birth defects and the safety of aspartame.
FDA also knew aspartame caused cancer.
An adenocarcinoma found in 1972 animal study, pp 6, 67, 70 of Bressler Report. FDA toxicologist and scientist, Dr. Adrian Gross, admitted to the Senate, aspartame caused cancer on 8/1/85 and said:"In view of these indications that the cancer causing potential of aspartame is a matter that had been established way beyond any reasonable doubt, one can ask: What is the reason for the apparent refusal by the FDA to invoke for this food additive the so-called Delaney Amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act?" He was talking about brain cancer.
The Delaney Amendment makes it illegal to allow any residues of cancer causing chemicals in foods. In his concluding testimony Gross asked, "Given the cancer causing potential of aspartame how would the FDA justify its position that it views a certain amount of aspartame as constituting an allowable daily intake or safe level of it? Is that position in effect not equivalent to setting a tolerance for this food additive and thus a violation of that law? And if the FDA itself elects to violate the law, who is left to protect the health of the public?" So here is the admission by FDA's own toxicologist that aspartame is on the market because FDA violated the law.
In 2005 and 2007 the impeccable Ramazzini Studies in Italy peer reviewed by 7 world experts proved aspartame to be a multipotential carcinogen. No surprise to the FDA since they knew about the cancer all along. As usual they just lied and denied it when the Ramazzini Studies were published. The medical text, Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic has a 1000 pages of why aspartame should not have been approved from adulteration and seizures to birth defects, neurodegenerative diseases, drug interaction and psychiatric disease.
Criminal Malfeasance by Arthur Hull Hayes and political chicanery of Don Rumsfeld is simply genocide, for which there is no statute of limitations.HERE
It can't be said any better than Dr. James Bowen told the FDA over two decades ago:
"The only responsible action would be to immediately take aspartame off the market, fully disclose its toxicities, offer full compensation to the injured, public and criminally prosecute anyone who participated in the fraudulent placement of aspartame on the marketplace. That includes those who work so diligently to keep it on the market as well."
March 17, 2013Dr. Betty Martini, D.Hum, FounderMission Possible International9270 River Club ParkwayDuluth, Georgia 30097770 242-2599Aspartame Toxicity Center, www.holisticmed.com/aspartameBoard of Inquiry Report revoking the petition for approval of aspartame:
So what exactly is this magic ingredient that will be appearing in a new version of Pepsi, and how is it made? Unfortunately, those questions are hard to answer. Senomyx… refers to them only as ‘enhancers’ or ‘ingredients’… The products work by triggering receptors on the tongue and tricking your taste buds into sensing sweetness — or saltiness or coolness, in the case of the company’s other programs…
So are Senomyx’s covert ingredients safe? That, too, is anyone’s guess… many of its enhancers have ‘been granted’GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status, but all that means is that the company did its own assessment and then concluded everything was fine. We don’t know whether Senomyx did any testing since the company isn’t required to submit anything to the FDA.14
There’s no reason to think that Senomyx’s products will cause harm, but until or unless Pepsi decides to share details about how exactly it’s achieving a 60 percent reduction in sugar while keeping the taste the same, customers will be drinking their ‘scientifically advantaged’ sodas completely in the dark.”
The lack of labeling requirements is particularly troublesome and will probably become an issue in the future. Since these compounds (whatever they are) are used in such minute quantities, they don’t have to be listed on the label. They’ll simply fall under the generic category of artificial and/or natural flavors. What this means is that the product will appear to be much “healthier” than it might otherwise be, were a flavor enhancer not used.
According to a 2010 CBS report,15 Senomyx’s flavor enhancers were already being sold outside the US at that time. For example, Nestle was by 2010 using an MSG flavor enhancer in its Maggi brand soups, sauces, condiments and instant noodles, and Ajinomoto was also using a similar ingredient in products for the Chinese market. This means less of the artificial sweetener is needed to create the same sweet taste as before, but while one could argue that this is a good thing, I suspect we will ultimately learn that this flavor enhancement method has multiple unforeseen adverse consequences — metabolically, and biologically.
Consequences of Food Alteration are More the Rule than the Exception…
There are many reasons why you’re better off choosing natural whole foods in lieu of processed alternatives, but one of the primary ones is that junk foods contain additives that increase your toxic load, which in turn may increase your tendency to develop cancer. As of yet, there is NO medical research to back up the assertion that manipulating your taste buds in the way Senomyx’ products do is safe and healthy in the long term. As an example, I would point to the evidence now available showing that one of the reasons why artificial sweeteners do not work as advertised is because the taste of sweet itself is tied into your metabolic functioning in a way that we still do not fully understand… As a result, artificially sweetened products, oftentimes boasting zero calories, actually result in greater weight gain than sweetened products when used “in the real world.”
It’s easy to forget that the processed, pre-packaged foods and fast food restaurants of today are actually a radical change in terms of the history of food production. Much of what we eat today bears very little resemblance of real food. Many products are loaded with non-nutritive fillers — purposely designed to just “take up space” to make you think you’re getting more than you really are — along with any number of additives. Many additives have been shown to have harmful effects on mood, behavior, metabolic functioning and biochemistry.
Now, with the introduction of untested engineered flavor enhancers, you’re left wondering whether processed foods with “cleaner” labels really are safer and healthier or not… Remember, because Senomyx’ flavor enhancers are used in such low concentrations they are not required to undergo the FDA’s usual safety approval process for food additives.
The disease trends we’re now seeing are only going to get worse as much of the processed foods consumed today are not even food-based. Who knows what kind of genetic mutations and malfunctions we’re creating for ourselves and future generations when a MAJORITY of our diet consists of highly processed and artificial foods that contain substances never before consumed by humans in all of history.
Friday, February 12, 2010This article was posted: Sunday, March 17, 2013 at 10:24 am
Aspartame has been renamed and is now being marketed as a natural sweetenerby: Ethan Huff
(NaturalNews) In response to growing awareness about the dangers of artificial sweeteners, what does the manufacturer of one of the world's most notable artificial sweeteners do? Why, rename it and begin marketing it as natural, of course. This is precisely the strategy of Ajinomoto, maker of aspartame, which hopes to pull the wool over the eyes of the public with its rebranded version of aspartame, called "AminoSweet".
Over 25 years ago, aspartame was first introduced into the European food supply. Today, it is an everyday component of most diet beverages, sugar-free desserts, and chewing gums in countries worldwide. But the tides have been turning as the general public is waking up to the truth about artificial sweeteners like aspartame and the harm they cause to health. The latest aspartame marketing scheme is a desperate effort to indoctrinate the public into accepting the chemical sweetener as natural and safe, despite evidence to the contrary.
Aspartame was an accidental discovery by James Schlatter, a chemist who had been trying to produce an anti-ulcer pharmaceutical drug for G.D. Searle & Company back in 1965. Upon mixing aspartic acid and phenylalanine, two naturally-occurring amino acids, he discovered that the new compound had a sweet taste. The company merely changed its FDA approval application from drug to food additive and, voila, aspartame was born.
G.D. Searle & Company first patented aspartame in 1970. An internal memo released in the same year urged company executives to work on getting the FDA into the "habit of saying yes" and of encouraging a "subconscious spirit of participation" in getting the chemical approved.
G.D. Searle & Company submitted its first petition to the FDA in 1973 and fought for years to gain FDA approval, submitting its own safety studies that many believed were inadequate and deceptive. Despite numerous objections, including one from its own scientists, the company was able to convince the FDA to approve aspartame for commercial use in a few products in 1974, igniting a blaze of controversy.
In 1976, then FDA Commissioner Alexander Schmidt wrote a letter to Sen. Ted Kennedy expressing concern over the "questionable integrity of the basic safety data submitted for aspartame safety". FDA Chief Counsel Richard Merrill believed that a grand jury should investigate G.D. Searle & Company for lying about the safety of aspartame in its reports and for concealing evidence proving the chemical is unsafe for consumption.
Despite the myriad of evidence gained over the years showing that aspartame is a dangerous toxin, it has remained on the global market with the exception of a few countries that have banned it. In fact, it continued to gain approval for use in new types of food despite evidence showing that it causes neurological brain damage, cancerous tumors, and endocrine disruption, among other things.
The details of aspartame's history are lengthy, but the point remains that the carcinogen was illegitimately approved as a food additive through heavy-handed prodding by a powerful corporation with its own interests in mind. Practically all drugs and food additives are approved by the FDA not because science shows they are safe but because companies essentially lobby the FDA with monetary payoffs and complete the agency's multi-million dollar approval process.
Changing aspartame's name to something that is "appealing and memorable", in Ajinomoto's own words, may hoodwink some but hopefully most will reject this clever marketing tactic as nothing more than a desperate attempt to preserve the company's multi-billion dollar cash cow. Do not be deceived.
- Ajinomoto brands aspartame 'AminoSweet' - FoodBev.com
- Aspartame History Highlights - Janet Starr Hull
- FDA's approval of aspartame under scrutiny - The Globe and Mail (Canada)
- An Overdue Ban On A Dangerous Sweetener - Huffington Post
Learn more: HERE
May 17, 2013
Posted by: The Liberty Beacon™ StaffPublished , filed under HEALTH
Aspartame is the technical name for the brand names NutraSweet, Equal, Spoonful, and Equal-Measure. It was discovered by accident in 1965 when James Schlatter, a chemist of G.D. Searle Company, was testing an anti-ulcer drug.Aspartame was approved for dry goods in 1981 and for carbonated beverages in 1983. It was originally approved for dry goods on July 26, 1974, but objections filed by neuroscience researcher Dr. John W. Olney and consumer attorney James Turner in August 1974, as well as investigations of G.D. Searle’s research practices caused the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to put approval of aspartame on hold (December 5, 1974). In 1985, Monsanto purchased G.D. Searle and made Searle Pharmaceuticals and The NutraSweet Company separate subsidiaries.Aspartame accounts for over 75 percent of the adverse reactions to food additives reported to the FDA. Many of these reactions are very serious, including seizures and death. A few of the 90 different documented symptoms listed in the report as being caused by aspartame include:
Headaches/ migraines Dizziness Seizures Nausea Numbness Muscle spasms Weight gain Rashes Depression Fatigue Irritability Tachycardia Insomnia Vision problems Hearing loss Heart palpitations Breathing difficulties Anxiety attacks Slurred speech Loss of taste Tinnitus Vertigo Memory loss Joint pain
According to researchers and physicians studying the adverse effects of aspartame, the following chronic illnesses can be triggered or worsened by ingesting of aspartame:
Brain tumors Multiple sclerosis Epilepsy Chronic fatigue syndrome Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s Mental retardation Lymphoma Birth defects Fibromyalgia Diabetes
Aspartame is made up of three chemicals: aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol. The book Prescription for Nutritional Healing, by James and Phyllis Balch lists aspartame under the category of “chemical poison.” As you shall see, that is exactly what it is.
What Is Aspartame Made Of?Aspartic Acid (40 percent of Aspartame)Dr. Russell L. Blaylock, a professor of neurosurgery at the Medical University of Mississippi, recently published a book thoroughly detailing the damage that is caused by the ingestion of excessive aspartic acid from aspartame. Blaylock makes use of almost 500 scientific references to show how excess free excitatory amino acids such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid (about 99 percent of monosodium glutamate or MSG is glutamic acid) in our food supply are causing serious chronic neurological disorders and a myriad of other acute symptoms.How Aspartate (and Glutamate) Cause Damage
Aspartate and glutamate act as neurotransmitters in the brain by facilitating the transmission of information from neuron to neuron. Too much aspartate or glutamate in the brain kills certain neurons by allowing the influx of too much calcium into the cells. This influx triggers excessive amounts of free radicals, which kill the cells. The neural cell damage that can be caused by excessive aspartate and glutamate is why they are referred to as “excitotoxins.” They “excite” or stimulate the neural cells to death. Aspartic acid is an amino acid. Taken in its free form (unbound to proteins), it significantly raises the blood plasma level of aspartate and glutamate. The excess aspartate and glutamate in the blood plasma shortly after ingesting aspartame or products with free glutamic acid (glutamate precursor) leads to a high level of those neurotransmitters in certain areas of the brain.
The blood brain barrier (BBB), which normally protects the brain from excess glutamate and aspartate as well as toxins, 1) is not fully developed during childhood, 2) does not fully protect all areas of the brain, 3) is damaged by numerous chronic and acute conditions, and 4) allows seepage of excess glutamate and aspartate into the brain even when intact.The excess glutamate and aspartate slowly begin to destroy neurons. The large majority (75 percent or more) of neural cells in a particular area of the brain are killed before any clinical symptoms of a chronic illness are noticed. A few of the many chronic illnesses that have been shown to be contributed to by long-term exposure to excitatory amino acid damage include:
Multiple sclerosis (MS) Parkinson’s disease ALS Hypoglycemia Memory loss AIDS Hormonal problems Dementia Epilepsy Brain lesions Alzheimer’s disease Neuroendocrine disorders
The risk to infants, children, pregnant women, the elderly and persons with certain chronic health problems from excitotoxins are great. Even the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), which usually understates problems and mimics the FDA party-line, recently stated in a review that:“It is prudent to avoid the use of dietary supplements of L-glutamic acid by pregnant women, infants, and children. The existence of evidence of potential endocrine responses, i.e., elevated cortisol and prolactin, and differential responses between males and females, would also suggest a neuroendocrine link and that supplemental L-glutamic acid should be avoided by women of childbearing age and individuals with affective disorders.”Aspartic acid from aspartame has the same deleterious effects on the body as glutamic acid.The exact mechanism of acute reactions to excess free glutamate and aspartate is currently being debated. As reported to the FDA, those reactions include:
Headaches/migraines Fatigue (blocks sufficient glucose entry into brain) Anxiety attacks Nausea Sleep problems Depression Abdominal pains Vision problems Asthma/chest tightness
One common complaint of persons suffering from the effect of aspartame is memory loss. Ironically, in 1987, G.D. Searle, the manufacturer of aspartame, undertook a search for a drug to combat memory loss caused by excitatory amino acid damage. Blaylock is one of many scientists and physicians who are concerned about excitatory amino acid damage caused by ingestion of aspartame and MSG.A few of the many experts who have spoken out against the damage being caused by aspartate and glutamate include Adrienne Samuels, Ph.D., an experimental psychologist specializing in research design. Another is Olney, a professor in the department of psychiatry, School of Medicine, Washington University, a neuroscientist and researcher, and one of the world’s foremost authorities on excitotoxins. (He informed Searle in 1971 that aspartic acid caused holes in the brains of mice.)
Phenylalanine (50 percent of aspartame)Phenylalanine is an amino acid normally found in the brain. Persons with the genetic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot metabolize phenylalanine. This leads to dangerously high levels of phenylalanine in the brain (sometimes lethal). It has been shown that ingesting aspartame, especially along with carbohydrates, can lead to excess levels of phenylalanine in the brain even in persons who do not have PKU.This is not just a theory, as many people who have eaten large amounts of aspartame over a long period of time and do not have PKU have been shown to have excessive levels of phenylalanine in the blood. Excessive levels of phenylalanine in the brain can cause the levels of serotonin in the brain to decrease, leading to emotional disorders such as depression. It was shown in human testing that phenylalanine levels of the blood were increased significantly in human subjects who chronically used aspartame.Even a single use of aspartame raised the blood phenylalanine levels. In his testimony before the U.S. Congress, Dr. Louis J. Elsas showed that high blood phenylalanine can be concentrated in parts of the brain and is especially dangerous for infants and fetuses. He also showed that phenylalanine is metabolized much more efficiently by rodents than by humans.One account of a case of extremely high phenylalanine levels caused by aspartame was recently published by the Wednesday Journal in an article titled “An Aspartame Nightmare.” John Cook began drinking six to eight diet drinks every day. His symptoms started out as memory loss and frequent headaches. He began to crave more aspartame-sweetened drinks. His condition deteriorated so much that he experienced wide mood swings and violent rages. Even though he did not suffer from PKU, a blood test revealed a phenylalanine level of 80 mg/dl. He also showed abnormal brain function and brain damage. After he kicked his aspartame habit, his symptoms improved dramatically.As Blaylock points out in his book, early studies measuring phenylalanine buildup in the brain were flawed. Investigators who measured specific brain regions and not the average throughout the brain notice significant rises in phenylalanine levels. Specifically the hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, and corpus striatum areas of the brain had the largest increases in phenylalanine. Blaylock goes on to point out that excessive buildup of phenylalanine in the brain can cause schizophrenia or make one more susceptible to seizures.Therefore, long-term, excessive use of aspartame may provide a boost to sales of serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Prozac and drugs to control schizophrenia and seizures.Methanol a.k.a wood alcohol/poison (10 percent of aspartame)Methanol/wood alcohol is a deadly poison. Some people may remember methanol as the poison that has caused some “skid row” alcoholics to end up blind or dead. Methanol is gradually released in the small intestine when the methyl group of aspartame encounters the enzyme chymotrypsin.The absorption of methanol into the body is sped up considerably when free methanol is ingested. Free methanol is created from aspartame when it is heated to above 86 Fahrenheit (30 Centigrade). This would occur when aspartame-containing product is improperly stored or when it is heated (e.g. as part of a “food” product such as Jello).Methanol breaks down into formic acid and formaldehyde in the body. Formaldehyde is a deadly neurotoxin. An EPA assessment of methanol states that methanol “is considered a cumulative poison due to the low rate of excretion once it is absorbed. In the body, methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde and formic acid; both of these metabolites are toxic.” They recommend a limit of consumption of 7.8 mg/day. A one-liter (approx. 1 quart) aspartame-sweetened beverage contains about 56 mg of methanol. Heavy users of aspartame-containing products consume as much as 250 mg of methanol daily or 32 times the EPA limit.Symptoms from methanol poisoning include headaches, ear buzzing, dizziness, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances, weakness, vertigo, chills, memory lapses, numbness and shooting pains in the extremities, behavioral disturbances, and neuritis. The most well known problems from methanol poisoning are vision problems including misty vision, progressive contraction of visual fields, blurring of vision, obscuration of vision, retinal damage, and blindness. Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen, causes retinal damage, interferes with DNA replication and causes birth defects.Due to the lack of a couple of key enzymes, humans are many times more sensitive to the toxic effects of methanol than animals. Therefore, tests of aspartame or methanol on animals do not accurately reflect the danger for humans. As pointed out by Dr. Woodrow C. Monte, director of the food science and nutrition laboratory at Arizona State University: “There are no human or mammalian studies to evaluate the possible mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of chronic administration of methyl alcohol.”He was so concerned about the unresolved safety issues that he filed suit with the FDA requesting a hearing to address these issues. He asked the FDA to:“…[S]low down on this soft drink issue long enough to answer some of the important questions. It’s not fair that you are leaving the full burden of proof on the few of us who are concerned and have such limited resources. You must remember that you are the American public’s last defense. Once you allow usage (of aspartame) there is literally nothing I or my colleagues can do to reverse the course. Aspartame will then join saccharin, the sulfiting agents, and God knows how many other questionable compounds enjoined to insult the human constitution with governmental approval.”Shortly thereafter, the Commissioner of the FDA, Arthur Hull Hayes, Jr., approved the use of aspartame in carbonated beverage. He then left for a position with G.D. Searle’s public relations firm.It has been pointed out that some fruit juices and alcoholic beverages contain small amounts of methanol. It is important to remember, however, that methanol never appears alone. In every case, ethanol is present, usually in much higher amounts. Ethanol is an antidote for methanol toxicity in humans. The troops of Desert Storm were “treated” to large amounts of aspartame-sweetened beverages, which had been heated to over 86 degrees F in the Saudi Arabian sun. Many of them returned home with numerous disorders similar to what has been seen in persons who have been chemically poisoned by formaldehyde. The free methanol in the beverages may have been a contributing factor in these illnesses. Other breakdown products of aspartame such as DKP (discussed below) may also have been a factor.In a 1993 act that can only be described as “unconscionable,” the FDA approved aspartame as an ingredient in numerous food items that would always be heated to above 86 degree F (30 degree C).
Diketopiperazine (DKP)DKP is a byproduct of aspartame metabolism. DKP has been implicated in the occurrence of brain tumors. Olney noticed that DKP, when nitrosated in the gut, produced a compound that was similar to N-nitrosourea, a powerful brain tumor causing chemical. Some authors have said that DKP is produced after aspartame ingestion. I am not sure if that is correct. It is definitely true that DKP is formed in liquid aspartame-containing products during prolonged storage.G.D. Searle conducted animal experiments on the safety of DKP. The FDA found numerous experimental errors occurred, including “clerical errors, mixed-up animals, animals not getting drugs they were supposed to get, pathological specimens lost because of improper handling,” and many other errors. These sloppy laboratory procedures may explain why both the test and control animals had 16 times more brain tumors than would be expected in experiments of this length.In an ironic twist, shortly after these experimental errors were discovered, the FDA used guidelines recommended by G.D. Searle to develop the industry-wide FDA standards for good laboratory practices.DKP has also been implicated as a cause of uterine polyps and changes in blood cholesterol by FDA Toxicologist Dr. Jacqueline Verrett in her testimony before the U.S. Senate.See original here: HERE