THE WORLD`s BIGGEST OIL COMPANIES



(L. petroleum, from Greek: πέτρα (rock) + Latin:oleum (oil) 
is a naturally occurring flammable liquidconsisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. The name Petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oils and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton andalgae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure. 

Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. This comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of porosity and permeable structures). It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol (or gasoline) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 88 million barrels each day. 
The use of fossil fuels such as petroleum can have a negative impact on Earth's biosphere, releasing pollutants and greenhouse gases into the air and damaging ecosystems through events such as oil spills. Concern over the depletion of the earth's finite reserves of oil, and the effect this would have on a society dependent on it, is a concept known as peak oil.



1. Saudi Aramco - 12.5 million barrels per day
Saudi Aramco is by far the biggest energy company in the world, generating more than $1 billion a day in revenues. This image depicts the Shaybah mega-project, sitting on more than 15 billion barrels of oil in the Rub al-Khali desert. Aramco's biggest field, Ghawar, can do 5 million bpd. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
2. Gazprom - 9.7 million barrels per day
Russia's Gazprom is the world's largest producer of natural gas. Controlled by the Kremlin, Gazprom's monopoly on gas deliveries to much of Europe provides President Vladimir Putin a prime lever for projecting power in the region. Gazprom's profits are more than $40 billion a year. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.)


3. National Iranian Oil Co. - 6.4 million barrels per day
Iran has been forced to curtail oil production due to international sanctions, but remains a huge oil and gas producer. To skirt sanctions, Turkey and India have reportedly been paying for Iranian oil with gold. The Strait of Hormuz remains the world's most significant choke point for oil. Iran has threatened to close the Strait if attacked. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.)


4. ExxonMobil - 5.3 million barrels per day
Exxon's $40 billion in annual profits don't seem like a lot when you consider their $400 billion in sales. It takes giant projects to "move the needle" for the Big Unit. That means CEO Rex Tillerson has to make friends with potentates. In this picture from last April, Tillerson is meeting with Russia's Vladimir Putin to iron out a joint venture between Exxon and Russia's state-controlled oil giant Rosneft. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
5. PetroChina - 4.4 million barrels per day
The largest of China's three state-controlled oil giants, PetroChina also has the highest market cap of any of the publicly traded giants. The company already produces more oil than ExxonMobil, and considering the estimates of massive shale gas under China, could someday vie with Gazprom as a regional gas power. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
6. BP- 4.1 million barrels per day
Bob Dudley is seeking to turn the giant formerly known as British Petroleum around. Selling assets, settling lawsuits, promising improvements. BP may not maintain its 4.1 million barrels per day for long; it is in talks to sell its 50% stake in Russian venture TNK-BP, which provides a quarter of production. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
7. Royal Dutch Shell - 3.9 million barrels per day
Shell is hoping this summer to start drilling for oil in Alaska's Chuckchi Sea. For years since leasing offshore blocks from the federal government Shell has been perfecting its drilling plan and preparing the Kulluk floating drilling rig, pictured here in the Puget Sound by Seattle. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
8. Pemex - 3.6 million barrels per day
Production from Mexico's biggest field, Cantarell (pictured) has plunged from 2 million bbl per day to roughly 600,000 now. State-owned Pemex is working to replace that shortfall with other fields. Mexico's incoming President Enrique Pena Nieto has said reforming Pemex to allow foreign investment will be his signature issue. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
9. Chevron - 3.5 million barrels per day
Chevron bought Atlas Petroleum in 2010 for $4.3 billion to gain acreage in the Marcellus and Utica shales. With gas prices low, some expect a bigger deal to come. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
10. Kuwait Petroleum Corp. - 3.2 million barrels per day
Kuwait's oil company was originally formed in 1934 by what are now Chevron and BP. In 1975 the company was nationalized. Kuwait's fields suffered greatly by fires set by Saddam Hussein's forces in 1990. Kurwait's biggest field, Burgan, continues to be operated by Chevron. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
11. Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. - 2.9 million barrels per day
Abu Dhabi is the seat of power in the United Arab Emirates. It is currently taking advantage of its strategic position adjacent to the Strait of Hormuz to build a pipeline to Fujairah, alleviating any chance of its crude exports being bottlenecked by an Iranian blockade. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
12. Sonatrach - 2.7 million barrels per day
Most of the output from Algeria's national energy company is in the form of natural gas, much of which Algeria exports to Europe. This image depicts the In Salah gas project, which strips out carbon dioxide from the gas stream and reinjects it back down into the gas reservoirs. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
13. Total - 2.7 million barrels per day
After French President Francois Hollande imposed new taxes on oil inventories in July, Total CEO Christophe de Margerie said the move would cost Total nearly $200 million in 2012 and hurt France's already ailing refining sector. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
14. Petrobras - 2.6 million barrels per day
Former CEO Sergio Gabrielli passes the baton to new Petrobras boss Maria das Gracas Silva Foster last February. The company is striving to develop massive ultra deep oil fields offshore. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
15. Rosneft - 2.6 million barrels per day
Sibling to Gazprom, Rosneft is Russia's state-controlled oil company. Russian President Vladimir Putin is shown here in June attending a signing ceremony of a joint venture between Rosneft and ExxonMobil to explore Russia's Arctic seas and giant oil-bearing shales. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
16. Iraqi Oil Ministry - 2.3 million barrels per day
Iraq will likely zoom up the ranks of the world's biggest producers as its giant untapped fields come on line. This photo is of drilling in West Qurna Phase 2, a project operated by Russia's Lukoil to tap 13 billion barrels. Lukoil's contract with Iraq pays it just $1.15 per barrel extracted. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
17. Qatar Petroleum - 2.3 million barrels per day
The vast majority of Qatar's production is in the form of natural gas, which gets shipped as LNG around the world. Qatar shares the world's largest natural gas field, which lies under the Persian Gulf, with Iran. Qatar is also home to the biggest U.S. military base in the region, not far across the desert from its gleaming capital Doha. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
18. Lukoil - 2.2 million barrels per day
Lukoil was formed in 1991 by former Soviet deputy oil minister Vagit Alekperov, who still runs the company and owns a 20% stake worth some $13 billion. Though Lukoil is investor-owned, Alekperov is still careful to consult Vladimir Putin. The two are seen here in 2010 touring Lukoil-Nizhegorodnefteorgsintez refinery at Kstovo in the Nizhny Novgorod region. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
19. Eni - 2.2 million barrels per day
Eni is Italy's oil champion. CEO Paolo Scaroni has in recent years made landmark joint ventures with the likes of Venezuela's Pdvsa and Russia's Rosneft. Here Scaroni shakes the hand of Dhiya Jaafar, acting chief of Iraq's South Oil Company, second right, as Iraqi Oil Minister Hussain al-Shahristani, center, looks on. In Iraq Eni is expanding the giant Zubair field. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
20. Statoil - 2.1 million barrels per day
The Norwegian government owns 67% of the shares in Statoil. The company has invested some $20 billion in the U.S., including the $4.7 billion acquisition of Bakken-focused Brigham Exploration in 2011. In May CEO Helge Lund (L) inked a new joint venture with Russia's Rosneft. There's Putin again. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
21. ConocoPhillips - 2 million barrels per day
This year ConocoPhillips spun off its refining business as Phillips 66 to focus on upstream operations. It may not have wanted its refineries, but strangely, Delta Air Lines did. This picture is of the Trainer, Pa. plant that Delta bought in hopes of paring its jet fuel bill. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
22. Petroleos de Venezuela - 1.9 million barrels per day
Known as Pdvsa, Venezuela's oil company seems to be the personal piggy bank of President Hugo Chavez, who has starved the company of capital to pay for social programs. Output is down 25% since 1998. That's Chavez' mug emblazoned on the side of Pdvsa headquarters in Caracas. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
23. Sinopec - 1.6 million barrels per day
Sinopec is China's biggest refiner. This year Sinopec cut a sweeping shale venture with Devon Energy. Chairman Fu Chengyu was also seen at at the NBA Finals as a guest of Oklahoma City Thunder owner, and Chesapeake Energy CEO Aubrey McClendon. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
24. Nigerian National Petroleum - 1.4 million barrels per day
Amid a crackdown on corruption in Nigeria's country's oil industry, President Goodluck Jonathan has recently sacked several executives of NNPC. Critics have also been calling for the head of oil Minister Diezani Alison-Madueke, shown here attending an OPEC meeting in Vienna. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.) 
25. Petronas - 1.4 million barrels per day
Malaysia's state oil giant mades its headquarters in the landmark Petronas Twin Towers, seen in the background of this photo. Petronas has recently expanded abroad, and is in the process of acquiring Canada's gas-focused Progress Energy for $5.4 billion. (Note: 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas.)
Not Just The Usual Suspects 
Love em or hate em, oil and natural gas companies keep the world running, and will for many years to come. The following 2012 ranking of the world's biggest is based on the combined volumes of oil and natural gas that these companies produce each day. You'll see one individual (arguably the oil industry's most powerful person) show up in a number of these pics. Can you guess who?For more energy industry coverage, check out my blog.     -- Christopher Helman | HERE 
  • Petroleum Industry : HERE
  • Super Major : HERE
7/16/2012 @ 2:16PM 
The World's Biggest Oil Companies
Christopher Helman, Forbes Staff


Every once in a while it’s good to remind ourselves who really controls the world’s horde of oil and gas. When you here the words “Big Oil” the company that likely springs first to mind is ExxonMobil. But in reality there are far bigger players than Exxon. More than 70% of world oil reserves, and an even greater percentage of the remaining reserves of “easy oil” are held by national oil companies controlled by kings and potentates and even some democratically elected governments like Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Norway. 
But when sorting through the rankings of the World’s 25 Biggest Oil Companies and looking at who controls and influences the biggest of big oil one thing becomes clear: no industry leader has more sway, has twisted more arms or made more deals than Russian President Vladimir Putin
      
Putin’s influence begins with Gazprom (#2 on the list of biggest oil and gas producers) and Rosneft(#15). Russia’s biggest natural gas and oil producers may be publicly traded, but a majority of shares are held by the Russian government, and thus overseen by Putin. Forbes first investigated Putin’s use of Gazprom as a political tool back in 2006 and his hold on the company—which has a near monopoly on selling gas to western Europe—has only strengthened since then. The same goes for Rosneft, to which Putin recently appointed his long-time deputy and energy tsar Igor Sechin as chairman. 
Putin is also influential in the interworkings of Lukoil (#18), which does not have any government ownership but was formed by a former Soviet deputy oil minister, Vagit Alekperov, who is nowworth $13.5 billion. 
Alekperov regularly consults with Putin, and the Russian oil giants already have some joint ventures and are discussing another link up for Arctic exploration. 
But Putin’s gravity has attracted many other oil giants. Royal Dutch Shell (#7) has a long historywith Gazprom in the Sakhalin Island developments. 
This year ExxonMobil (#4) forged a sweeping joint venture with Rosneft to explore the Arctic as well as Siberia’s massive Bazhevon shale formation, which some think could be 80 bigger than the Bakken formation of North Dakota. Exxon has said that if successful this tie-up could lead to $500 billion in investments in the years to come. 
BP (#6) tried to cut a similar deal last year, but was blocked by the Russian oligarchs behind BP’s 50/50 venture TNK-BP. (BP is now in talks with Rosneftagain, given its intent to sell out its TNK-BP stake.) Rosneft in recent months has cut similar ventures with Norway’s state oil giant Statoil (#20) as well as Italy’s champion Eni (#19). A stern-visaged Putin has presided over each of the signing ceremonies. 
Eni has been particularly friendly with the Kremlin. Putin forged a close friendship with former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and reportedly said that the sexual allegations that led in part to the fall of Berlusconi were“made out of envy.” 
That helped open the door for Gazprom to link up with Eni on natural gas projects in north Africa, especially Libya. Putin, at a summit with Muammar Gaddafi in 2008 forged an alliance between Russia and Libya, and was highly critical of NATOs attacks on Libya last year. 
Gaddafi was just one of Putin’s oil-soaked despot pals. In 2010 Putin and Venezuelan strongman Hugo Chavez signed a deal in which Russia promised to sell Venezuela weapons and energy technology and to even help Chavez build a nuclear power plant. Last year Gazprom and Rosneft loaned Petroleos de Venezuela (#22) $4 billion in exchange for access to oil and gas opportunities. 
But what of the great Middle Eastern oil and gas powers? Putin has had a rocky relationship with OPEC over the years. Russia is a not a member of the cartel despite the fact that until just recently it was exporting more oil than Saudi Arabia. In fact Russia has competed directly with Saudi Aramco (#1) for customers in the Far East. Last year, however, Putin said that Russia would start cooperating with OPEC 
“OPEC is sometimes irritated by us as we, not being a member of the organization, produce more oil, which influences international crude oil prices,” said Putin. “But we will coordinate our work with OPEC.” 
Putin tried, and failed, five years ago, to get natural gas giants Qatar Petroleum (#17) and the National Iranian Oil Company (#3) interested in forming a gas version of OPEC. That was before the U.S. shale gas boom changed the face of global gas supply. 
Putin presides over a signing ceremony in Moscow last April with Italian energy company Eni CEO Paolo Scaroni (L) and Rosneft CEO Eduard Khudainatov. (Image credit: AFP/Getty Images via @daylife)
The trouble for Putin and other gas giants is that the global gas market is nowhere near as fungible as oil. Asian buyers like Japan and Korea pay upwards of $14 per thousand cubic feet for gas delivered via LNG from Qatar.Gazprom sells gas to Europe at around $12. Contrast that with the going price in the United States right now of $2.90 for a thousand cubic feet. 
The revolution of cracking natural gas out of shale is frankly the biggest threat to Putin’s power over the energy industry. It’s brought the price of gas in the U.S. down more than 80% since 2008 and enabled manufacturers to move operations back to the U.S. to take advantage of it — saving America $100 billion a year in the process. 
Once U.S. producers build facilities to export LNG (Cheniere Energy is getting closer all the time) that will be one more global competitor for Gazprom
So it’s no wonder that Putin and his cronies have been railing against shale gas. Two years ago Gazprom’s Alexander Medvedev hit out against shale gas, saying fracking “endangers drinking water.” Last April Putin himself said Russians must“rise to the challenge” of shale gas and that “national energy companies, obviously, must respond to these challenges. 
” The Kremlin’s global propaganda arm, a government-owned TV network that broadcasts in the U.S. and over YouTube called Russia Today, has done just that with a series of one-sided anti-fracking stories like this and this and this
We’ll see how the tune changes when it’s time to Exxon and Statoil to start fracking Siberia. Don’t think for a second that Putin will let anti-fracking protests prevent Gazprom and Rosneft from losing their place among the World’s Biggest 25 Oil Companies
What are the Largest Oil Companies on the Planet? HERE 
With the ever rising cost of motor fuel in most countries around the world, more and more attention has been focused on the largest oil companies in today's market. Many people are not entirely certain what are the largest oil companies in the world today. 
Before turning to focus directly on the largest oil companies in the world, it is interesting to look at the top ten largest corporations of all varieties in operation in the world today. 
The top ten corporations in the world today, the ten largest corporations in the world today are:
  1. Exxon Mobil
  2. Wal-Mart Stores
  3. Royal Dutch Shell
  4. BP
  5. General Motors
  6. Chevron
  7. DaimlerChrysler
  8. Toyota Motor
  9. Ford Motor
  10. ConocoPhillips 
Fully fifty percent of the largest companies on the planet today are oil companies:
  1. Exxon Mobil
  2. Royal Dutch Shell
  3. BP
  4. Chevron
  5. ConocoPhillips
One interesting trend that has been occurring in the past decade involves the merger of oil companies. Indeed, it is because of the merger of the Exxon and Mobile corporations that drove the combined Exxon Mobile to the top of the charts as the largest corporation in the world. Of the five oil companies that dominate the list of the top ten largest companies in business today, three of the companies are merged enterprises. 
The mergers took place only in the past ten years:
  1. Exxon Mobile
  2. Royal Dutch Shell
  3. ConocoPhillips
Historically, when oil companies first started to gain a significant market share in the United States and around the world, these companies were large "oil trusts" owned and operated by a few families. 
The prime example was the Standard Oil Trust owned by John D. Rockefeller. 
Interestingly, in the United States and in some other countries around the world, the large oil trusts were broken up by the government. In today's world, the mammoth companies that have come into existence because of the merger of oil companies far exceed the assets and holdings of the oil trusts that were dismantled a few generations ago. 
In the 21st century, the vast majority of oil companies in operation have enjoyed significant profits. This definitely has been the case with the major oil companies that have been mentioned previously and that dominate the list of the top ten biggest companies in the world at this point in history. 
Most industry insiders and analysts believe that the revenues and profits enjoyed by major -- and smaller -- oil companies are expected to continue to rise unabated into the foreseeable future. A minority of industry analysts maintain that the governments of some countries (perhaps even the United States) may be positioned to attempt to enact some sort of windfall profits tax of the kind that was legislated into being in the 1970s. 
However, the belief that a tax on so-called windfall profits might be forthcoming in the United States or elsewhere is a minority perspective.
  
Share on Google Plus

About Octa Dandy Saiyar

Kelahiran Jakarta keturunan asli Bukittinggi, Sumatera Barat .
07 Oktober 1983.



    Blogger Comment
    Facebook Comment

0 komentar:

Twitter Feed