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" Studying Is Not A Crime "

Thursday, May 16, 2013

PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH - JAKARTA 2013



Environmental policy  
Refers to the commitment of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues and sustainability. These issues generally include air and water pollution, solid waste management, biodiversity, ecosystem management, maintenance of biodiversity, the protection of natural resources, wildlife and endangered species. Policies concerning energy or regulation of toxic substances like pesticides and many types of industrial waste are included in the topic of environmental policy. This policy can be deliberately taken or avoided to direct and oversee human activities and thereby prevent harmful effects on Nature and natural resources, as well as to make sure that changes in the environment do not have harmful effects on humans. HERE
 Zero waste
Zero waste is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused. Any trash sent to landfills and incinerators is minimal. The process recommended is one similar to the way that resources are reused in nature. A working definition of zero waste, often cited by experts in the field originated from a working group of the Zero Waste International Alliance in 2004: 
Zero Waste is a goal that is ethical, economical, efficient and visionary, to guide people in changing their lifestyles and practices to emulate sustainable natural cycles, where all discarded materials are designed to become resources for others to use. Zero Waste means designing and managing products and processes to systematically avoid and eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and not burn or bury them. Implementing Zero Waste will eliminate all discharges to land, water or air that are a threat to planetary, human, animal or plant health. 
In industry this process involves creating commodities out of traditional waste products, essentially making old outputs new inputs for similar or different industrial sectors. An example might be the cycle of a glass milk bottle. The primary input (or resource) is silica-sand, which is formed into glass and then into a bottle. The bottle is filled with milk and distributed to the consumer. At this point, normal waste methods would see the bottle disposed in a landfill or similar. But with a zero-waste method, the bottle can be saddled at the time of sale with a deposit, which is returned to the bearer upon redemption. The bottle is then washed, refilled, and resold. The only material waste is the wash water, and energy loss has been minimized (see container deposit legislation). 
Zero waste can represent an economical alternative to waste systems, where new resources are continually required to replenish wasted raw materials. It can also represent an environmental alternative to waste since waste represents a significant amount of pollution in the world.| HERE 
 Environmental issues 
In Indonesia are associated with the country's high population and rapid industrialisation, and they are often given a lower priority due to high amount of overly rich people, and an over-resourced governance. Issues include large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires causing heavy smog over parts of western Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore; over-exploitation of marine resources; and environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services. Deforestation and the destruction of peatlands make Indonesia the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Habitat destruction threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species, including 140 species of mammals identified by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) asthreatened, and 15 identified as critically endangered, including the Sumatran Orangutan. | HERE
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Jakarta Waste Landfill

  • Living off the landfill: Indonesia's resident scavengers | Jakarta's 'mountain' waste tip provides a living – and a home – for 2,000 families | HERE
  • The children of the dump | Mary Baines, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta | Feature | Mon, March 04 2013, 8:57 AM | HERE


I ) Waste Landfill ( Limbah TPA ) : 
One of the problems of landfills is pollution of the road from dirty wheels on vehicles when they leave the landfill.

To reduce this, wheel washing systems are used to clean the wheels as the vehicle exits the landfill. Poisonous leachate can also leak from the landfill contaminating nearby soil and groundwater. Methane gases are flammable and explosive if exposed to heat.


Preferable Waste Management
The Waste Hierarchy is a list of approaches to managing waste, arranged in order of preference.  Below is a common graphical representation of the Hierarchy, with the least preferred option for managing waste, disposal, located at the bottom and the most preferred option, avoidance and minimisation, located at the top.  The Waste Hierarchy is widely used as a simple communication tool to remind those who generate or manage waste that:
  1. strategies which try to avoid products becoming waste are generally preferable to...
  2. strategies which seek to find a use for waste, which are in turn generally preferable to...
  3. strategies for disposal, which should be used as a last resort.
For more information on Avoidance and Minimisation, Reuse, Recycling, Recovery and Disposal, click on the relevant link in HERE.    


Waste Management


is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. All wastes materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste management 
Waste Grafik
Waste management practices can differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. 
Management of non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility oflocal government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial andindustrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator subject to local, national or international controls.


Industrial Waste
4) Industrial waste  
is the waste produced by industrial activity, such as that of factories, mills and mines. It has existed since the outset of the industrial revolution.
Penalties and fees are created as enforcement actions and to ensure that violating conditions are corrected in a timely manner to ensure consistent treatment of industrial dischargers; to eliminate economic advantages for violations; and to ensure that states recover expenses attributable to violations

Waste Hauled Container
5) Solid Waste Collection 

  • Analysis of Hauled Container Systems  | HERE

Tucson : Waste Landfill
6) ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES : CITY OF TUCSON 
The Mission of the Environmental Services Department is to promote a healthy Tucson community by providing innovative and effective waste management and environmental protection services.
Environmental Services provides Tucson citizens and businesses with trash collection and disposal. Other services include:
  • Recycling and waste reduction services.
  • Operating the City's Los Reales Landfill in compliance with State and Federal regulations.
  • Cleaning up groundwater at old landfills. View project reports and maps
Ensuring that the City's air quality and industrial waste discharge permits are up-to-date and in compliance.

Energy Management


7) Energy Management 
includes planning and operation of energy-related production and consumption units. Objectives are resource conservation, climate protection and cost savings, while the users have permanent access to the energy they need. It is connected closely to environmental management, production management, logistics and other established business functions. The VDI-Guideline 4602 released a definition which includes the economic dimension: “Energy management is the proactive, organized and systematic coordination of procurement, conversion, distribution and use of energy to meet the requirements, taking into account environmental and economic objectives”.


Household Waste Management

8) Household Waste Management 
Edited by Tombaker23, Teresa, Osten, P.Schutte and 1 other | HERE 
Household Hazardous Waste 
Leftover household products that contain corrosive, toxic, ignitable, or reactive ingredients are considered to be household hazardous waste (HHW). Products, such as paints, cleaners, oils, batteries, and pesticides, that contain potentially hazardous ingredients require special care when you dispose of them. 
Improper disposal of HHW can include pouring them down the drain, on the ground, into storm sewers, or in some cases putting them out with the trash. The dangers of such disposal methods might not be immediately obvious, but improper disposal of these wastes can pollute the environment and pose a threat to human health. Many communities in the United States offer a variety of options for conveniently and safely managing HHW.

HHW Reduction, Reuse, Recycling, and Disposal Options
The options of reduction, reuse, recycling, and disposal-listed in order of EPA’s preferred waste management hierarchy-are all important tools to safely manage HHW. The following information can help you determine the best ways to reduce, reuse, or dispose of common household products that may contain hazardous ingredients. Each community is different, so check with your local environmental, health, or solid waste agency for more information on HHW management options in your area. 
Benefits of Proper HHW Management
Reduction and recycling of HHW conserves resources and energy that would be expended in the production of more products.
Reuse of hazardous household products can save money and reduce the need for generating hazardous substances.
Proper disposal prevents pollution that could endanger human health and the environment. 
Reduction at Home
Consider reducing your purchase of products that contain hazardous ingredients. Learn about the use of alternative methods or products—without hazardous ingredients—for some common household needs.
To avoid the potential risks associated with household hazardous wastes, it is important that people always monitor the use, storage, and disposal of products with potentially hazardous substances in their homes. Below are some tips for individuals to follow in their own homes:
Use and store products containing hazardous substances carefully to prevent any accidents at home. Never store hazardous products in food containers; keep them in their original containers and never remove labels. Corroding containers, however, require special handling. Call your local hazardous materials official or fire department for instructions.
When leftovers remain, never mix HHW with other products. Incompatible products might react, ignite, or explode, and contaminated HHW might become unrecyclable.
Remember to follow any instructions for use and disposal provided on product labels.
Call your local environmental, health, or solid waste agency for instructions on proper use and disposal and to learn about local HHW drop off programs and upcoming collection days. 
Collection Options—Municipalities and Local Governments Facilitating Reuse, Recycling, and Proper Disposal
Permanent collection or exchange. See if your community has a facility that collects HHW year-round. Some of these facilities have exchange areas for unused or leftover paints, solvents, pesticides, cleaning and automotive products, and other materials. By taking advantage of these facilities, materials can be used by someone else, rather than being thrown away.
Special collection days. If your community doesn’t have a year-round collection system for HHW, see if there are any designated days in your area for collecting solid waste at a central location to ensure safe management and disposal.
Local business collection sites. If your community has neither a permanent collection site nor a special collection day, you might be able to drop off certain products at local businesses for recycling or proper disposal. Some local garages, for example, may accept used motor oil for recycling.
Disposal Options
Certain types of HHW have the potential to cause physical injury to sanitation workers, contaminate septic tanks or wastewater treatment systems if poured down drains or toilets, and present hazards to children and pets if left around the house. Federal law allows disposal of HHW in the trash. However, many communities have collection programs for HHW to reduce the potential harm posed by these chemicals. EPA encourages participation in these HHW collection programs rather than discarding the HHW in the trash. Call your local environmental, health, or solid waste agency for the time and location of your HHW collection program. Also, read product labels for disposal directions to reduce the risk of products exploding, igniting, leaking, mixing with other chemicals, or posing other hazards on the way to a disposal facility. Even empty containers of HHW can pose hazards because of the residual chemicals that might remain.

Kerbside : Recycling Model Structure



Waste Behaviour Management


Landfill Waste Management


9) Bioreactor Technologies
Waste Management's Aerobic-Anaerobic Bioreactor* 
is designed to accelerate waste degradation by combining attributes of the aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors. The objective of the sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment is to cause the rapid biodegradation of food and other easily degradable waste in the aerobic stage in order to reduce the production of organic acids in the anaerobic stage resulting in the earlier onset of methanogenesis. In this system the uppermost lift or layer of waste is aerated, while the lift immediately below it receives liquids. Landfill gas is extracted from each lift below the lift receiving liquids. Horizontal wells that are installed in each lift during landfill construction are used convey the air, liquids, and landfill gas. The principle advantage of the hybrid approach is that it combines the operational simplicity of the anaerobic process with the treatment efficiency of the aerobic process. Added benefits include an expanded potential for destruction of volatile organic compounds in the waste mass. (*US Patent 6,283,676 B1)
Waste Management's Facultative Landfill Bioreactor** 
combines conventional anaerobic degradation with a mechanism for controlling high ammonia concentrations. Leachate recirculation may cause an increase in the concentration of ammonia to the point to where it is toxic to bacteria. By incorporating nitrogen cycle control, the ammonia can be partially treated to create "nitrated" leachate. Nitrated leachate is leachate that has been treated to convert ammonia to nitrate. The nitrated leachate serves much the same purpose as oxygen or air would in an aerobic landfill, serving as an electron donor. (**US Patent 6,398,958 )


Source : Google Search

May 21, 2013
Jakarta Passes Sweeping Waste Management Regulation
By Lenny Tristia Tambun on 3:24 pm 
A new regulation in Jakarta imposes fines of up to Rp 50 million ($5,120) on illegal dumping, while also implementing stricter mandates on eco-friendly bags, biodegradable packaging, littering and waste management.
Unu Nurdin, the head of the Jakarta Cleanliness Office, said the new rule, approved by the Jakarta Legislative Council on Tuesday, mandates that rubbish be put in designated locations and companies manage their waste, especially that which can lead to pollution and environmental degradation.
“If residents and companies do not meet their obligations, as arranged in the regulations, they will face sanctions. The sanctions range from administrative ones to fines of between Rp 500,000 to Rp 50 million,” Unu said after a plenary meeting of the City Council.
Article 126 of the regulation prohibits dumping waste into waterways and water reservoirs, streets, parks and public areas. It also says that waste must be disposed in integrated waste dumps (TPST) and final dump sites (TPA) between 6 a.m to 9 p.m.
“It is also prohibited to dispose waste at the TPST or TPA without a permit, burn waste that pollutes the environment, throw waste from a vehicle, use parts of streets as temporary waste dumps, manage waste that leads to pollution or environmental degradation,” Unu said.
Neighborhood units known as Rukun Warga were also given the authority to slap administrative sanctions on those households which fail to separate their waste into organic and inorganic.
Those responsible over the management of residential, commercial, industrial and other special areas, who are found negligent in providing facilities for waste management will also incur administrative sanctions and fines of between Rp 10 million to Rp 50 million.
Operators of public and social facilities which fail to provide facility for waste separation will incur administrative sanctions and fines of between Rp 1 million to Rp 5 million.
Manufacturers which fail to display matters related to reducing waster or waste handling on their packaging, or use packaging that cannot naturally decompose, may face administrative sanctions as well as fines of Rp 25 million to Rp 50 million.
Shopping center operators who do not use environmentally-friendly shopping bags will also face administrative sanctions as well as fine of between Rp 5 million and Rp 25 million.
“The governor can issue administrative sanctions, including fines, on individuals who intentionally dump waste outside of the allowed time, of up to Rp 100,000,” Uno said.
Litterers, including dumping waste into water ways and reservoirs, on the streets, in parks or in public areas, face a fine of Rp 500,000
Those caught littering from vehicles will also face the same fine. Salvagers working on piles or mounds of waste can also face a fine of a similar amount if they spread the waste.
“These fines will be sent to the regional treasury in line with the regulations and laws. We want the public to be waste conscious, so that we can also reduce floods in Jakarta,” he said.
Jakarta Can Save $22m in Waste Expenses in New Rule
on 11:14 am June 2, 2013.
The Jakarta administration could save up to Rp 217 billion ($22 million) in sanitation expenses under the city’s newly enacted waste management regulation, an expert said on Saturday.
“If the new regulation can be implemented, what will happen next is cost savings from transporting waste, which has been a burden on the Jakarta coffer each year,” said Sodiq Suhardianto, chairman of the Indonesian Sanitation Study Center (P3I).
The new regulation, approved by the Jakarta Legislative Council last month, mandates that industrial and commercial areas as well as upscale housing complexes be able to independently manage their own waste, taking the burden off the city’s integrated waste dumps (TPST) and final dump sites (TPA), which have been overwhelmed by trash.
“The management of commercial areas [in Jakarta] will have to collect, transport and manage their own wastes or work together with a sanitation firm. This system has already been implemented in a number of developed countries,” Sodiq said.
The rule states that those responsible for the management of residential, commercial, industrial and other special areas, who have been found negligent in providing facilities for waste management, will face administrative sanctions and fines of between Rp 10 million to Rp 50 million.
The P3I chairman said the requirement provides an opportunity for the Jakarta administration to establish a city-owned commercial waste management firm to raise money needed to cover waste management expenses in less developed areas.
“Implement [the regulation] properly, then the city government can save up to 30 percent or even more,” he said.
Every year, the capital spends around Rp 400 billion for transporting waste and another Rp 255 billion to manage the waste, Sodiq said.
The new regulation is also aimed at reducing waste that is non-biodegradable.
Manufacturers that fail to display matters related to reducing waste or waste handling on their packaging, or use packaging that cannot naturally decompose, may face administrative sanctions as well as fines of Rp 25 million to Rp 50 million.
Shopping center operators who do not use environmentally friendly shopping bags will also face administrative sanctions as well as fines of between Rp 5 million and Rp 25 million.
Last week, Unu Nurdin, the head of the Jakarta Sanitation Office said that the regulation also imposes heftier fines on littering and illegal dumping and for the first time obliges households and building operators to separate their organic waste from inorganic.


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