|" Good Vs Evil " Proverb|
Representative excerpts The Common Enemy Essay by Carl Sagan
- We are at risk. [...] What will it take to free us from the trap we have set for ourselves?
- A good start is to examine the historical facts as they might be viewed by the other side.
- We are fallible, even leaders.
- Habitual enmity is corrupting and self-sustaining.
- The challenge then is not in selective glorification of the past, or in defending national icons, but in devising a path that will carry us through a time of great mutual peril.
- Is it possible that human are at last coming to our senses and beginning to work together on behalf of the species and the planet?
- Nothing is promised. History has placed this burden on our shoulders. It is up to us to build a future worthy of our children and grandchildren. MORE : HERE
-" Unseen Fight Which Exists in Various Forms, Start With Ourself."-
Evil is profound immorality. In certain religious contexts evil has been described as a supernatural force. Definitions of evil vary, as does the analysis of its root motives and causes. However elements that are commonly associated with evil involve unbalanced behavior involving expediency, selfishness, ignorance, or neglect.
In cultures with Manichaean and Abrahamic religious influence, evil is usually perceived as the dualistic antagonistic opposite of good, in which good should prevail and evil should be defeated. In cultures with Buddhist spiritual influence, both good and evil are perceived as part of an antagonistic duality that itself must be overcome through achieving Śūnyatā meaning emptiness in the sense of recognition of good and evil being two opposing principles but not a reality, emptying the duality of them, and achieving a oneness.
The philosophical question of whether morality is absolute or relative leads to questions about the nature of evil, with views falling into one of four opposed camps: moral absolutism, amoralism, moral relativism, and moral universalism.
While the term is applied to events and conditions without agency, the forms of evil addressed in this article presume an evildoer or doers.
(Arabic: المسيح الدجّال Al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl, Arabic for "the false messiah")
Dajjālis an evil figure in Islamic eschatology. He is to appear pretending to be Masih (i.e. the Messiah) at a time in the future, before Yawm al-Qiyamah (Day of Resurrection), directly comparable to the figures of the Antichrist and Armilus in Christian and Jewish eschatology.
is a common Arabic word (دجال) with the meaning "deceiving" or "the Placebo" or "impostor" Al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl, with the definite article al- ("the"), refers to "the deceiving Messiah", a specific end-of times deceiver.
The Dajjāl is a human being, called a living devil or incarnate Iblis.
According to hadith, Muhammad is said to have prophesied that the Masih ad-Dajjal would be the last of a series of thirty Dajjal or "deceivers" (false prophets).
Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: Allah's Apostle said.Muhammad is reported to have said:... Allah is not one eyed while the false Messiah, Ad-Dajjal is blind in the right eye and his eye looks like a bulging out grape.
"While I was sleeping, I saw myself (in a dream) performing Tawaf around the Ka'ba. Behold, I saw a reddish-white man with lank hair, and water was dropping from his head. I asked, "Who is this?' They replied, 'The son of Mary.' Then I turned my face to see another man with a huge body, red complexion and curly hair and blind in one eye. His eye looked like a protruding out grape. They said (to me), he is Ad-Dajjal."
The Prophet added, "The man he resembled most is Ibn Qatan, a man from the tribe of Khuza'a."Narrated Ibn Umar: Once Allah's Apostle stood amongst the people, glorified and praised Allah as He deserved. Then, mentioning Dajjal, he said,
"I warn you against him (i.e. the Dajjal) and there was no prophet but warned his nation against him. No doubt, Noah warned his nation against him but I tell you about him something of which no prophet told his nation before me. You should know that he is one-eyed, and Allah is not one-eyed."
Imam Ali was reported to have said:His right eye will be punctured, and his left eye would be raised to his forehead and will be sparkling like a star. Only the believers will be able to read the word ‘Kufr’ [disbelief], inscribed in bold letters, on his forehead. There will be big mountains of smoke at both front and backsides of his caravan. People will anticipate food within those mountains, during the severe famine. All rivers, falling in his way, will become dry and he will call upon people in aloud voice, "O my friends come to me! I am your lord who has made your limbs and given you sustenance.
Anas b. Malik
reported that Allah's Messenger said:
There is never a prophet who has not warned the Ummah of that one-eyed liar; behold he is one-eyed and your Lord is not one-eyed. On his forehead are the letters k. f. r. (Kafir).
Signs of his comingHadith attributed to Muhammad give many signs of the appearance of the Dajjal, and exhorted his followers to recite the first and last ten verses of Sura Al-Kahf, as protection from the trials and mischief of the Dajjal.
The following signs are ascribed to Ali in the coming of Dajjal:
- People will stop offering the prayers
- Dishonesty will be the way of life
- Falsehood will become a virtue
- People will mortgage their faith for worldly gain
- Usury and bribery will become legitimate
- Imbeciles would rule over the wise
- Blood of innocents would be shed
- Pride will be taken on acts of oppression
- The rulers will be corrupt
- The scholars will be hypocrites
- There will be acute famine at the time
- There will be no shame amongst people
- Many people would worship Satan
- There would be no respect for elderly people
- EschatologyThe Dajjal will appear somewhere between Iran and Syria and will travel the whole world preaching his falsehood, but will be unable to enter Mecca or Medina.
Isa (Jesus) will return and the Dajjal will gather an army of 70,000 people, of those he has deceived and lead them in a war against Jesus, who shall be accompanied by an army of the righteous.
Differing viewsSunni beliefs
Sunni Muslims believe that Isa (Latinized as Jesus) will descend on Mount ≥Afeeq, on the white Eastern Minaret of Damascus. He will descend from the heavens with his hands resting on the shoulders of two angels. His cheeks will be flat and his hair straight. When he lowers his head it will seem as if water is flowing from his hair, when he raises his head, it will appear as though his hair is beaded with silvery pearls. He will descend during Fajr (morning prayer) and the leader of the Muslims will address him thus, "O' Prophet of God, lead the prayer." Isa will decline with the words, "The virtue of this nation that follows Islam is that they lead each other." Implying that he will pray behind the imam (the man that leads the prayings) as the word of God was completed after revelation of Qur'an and Muhammad being the last prophet of God.
After the prayer, Isa will prepare himself to do battle and shall take up a sword. An army shall return from a campaign launched before the arrival of Isa. Isa shall set out in pursuit of Dajjal. All those who embraced the evil of Dajjal shall perish even as the breath of Isa touches them. The breath of Isa shall precede him as far as the eye can see. Dajjal will be captured at Lod. Dajjal shall begin to melt, as salt dissolves in water. The spear of Isa shall plunge into Dajjal’s chest, ending his dreaded reign. The followers of Dajjal will be rooted out, for even the trees and rocks will speak out against them. Isa will break the cross and kill the pig (the animal). Then all battles shall cease and the world will know an age of peace. The rule of Isa will be just and all shall flock to him to enter the folds of the one true religion, Islam.
In Islam, the Devil is known as ʾIblīs
(Arabic: إبليس, plural: ابالسة ʾAbālisa) or Shayṭān (Arabic:شيطان, plural: شياطين Shayāṭīn).
In Islam Iblis is a Jinn who refused to bow to mankind. The primary characteristic of the Devil, besides hubris, is that he has no power other than the power to cast evil suggestions into the heart of men, women, and jinn, although the Quran does mention appointing jinn to assist those who are far from God in a general context.
"We made the Shayatin (devils) ʾAwliyāʾ (protectors and helpers) for those who believe not." (سورة الأعراف al-ʾAʿraf, Chapter #7, Verse #27)
Namings and etymology
Muslims traditionally derived the name from the Arabic verbal root balasa بَلَسَ, meaning "he despaired"; therefore, the meaning of ʾIblīs would be "he/it that causes despair".
In popular Islamic culture, "Shaytan" (Arabic: شيطان), is often simply translated as "The Devil," but the term can refer to any of the jinn who disobeyed God and followed ʾIblīs. Some scholars are of the view that ʾIblīs is the father of all of the jinn, as Adam is the father of all of humanity as mentioned in the Quran
“will you take him (ʾIblīs) and his offspring as allies other than Me while they are enemies to you?”.Sura Al-Kahf:18-50
The Devil in Islamic theologyAccording to The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, shaytan is used in the Quran in the singular and for the plural Shayateen, often interchangeably with Iblis" who is "considered to be a particular shaytan".
According to basic Islamic teachings, God revealed creating three intelligent species: angels, jinns, and humans, of which the latter two have been granted free will to choose between good and evil, and Quran states that there is other creation beyond human knowledge
"and He has created other things which are beyond your knowledge". Surah An-Nahl 16:8
Iblis was a jinn and a devoted servant of God, according to the Qur’an, which Muslims take as the authoritative word of God. However, according to other non-Quranic sources he was a "disobedient angel".
This view is also backed by a different interpretation of the same verse that commanded the whole order of the angels, whom Iblis was part of until he broke away from the qualities of the order, to prostrate to Adam who was not part of the angelic order.Th ere are other verses that may be considered as a reinforcement to this view in that humans are referred to as "bashar" (men) while other than bashar are referred to as "malaaikah" (angels) which is consistent to the previous verse. It is important to point out that Bashar ( Arabic:بَشر) is not the only word used in Islamic text to refer to humans. There are also words like Banu Adam /Bani Adam ( Arabic:بنو آدم/ بني آدم) (sons of Adam) or Insan (Arabic:إنسان) (human being) and Alnas (Arabic: الناس) (people)
The angels do not have free will and cannot sin because they were not granted the freedom by God to disobey. When God created Adam (see Islamic view of Adam), he commanded all the angels and Iblis (whose rank allowed him to be considered equal to that of an angel) to prostrate to Adam as was termed "the Best of Creation". All the angels did so. The jinn Iblis refused to obey, and was brought into a state of rebellion against God. For this God cast him out of the Garden, and intended to punish him. Iblis begged God to delay the punishment until the Last Day (the Day of Judgment): this God granted, as he is Most Merciful (ar-Raḥīm). It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and they prostrate; not so Iblis; He refused to be of those who prostrate.
God said: "What prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst create me from fire, and him from clay."—Qurʾān (Yusuf Ali's translation), sura 7 (Al-A'raf), ayat 11-12
Iblis was proud and arrogant and considered himself superior to Adam, since Adam was made from clay and Iblis from smokeless fire. For this act of disobedience, God cursed him to Hell for eternity, but gave him respite until the Day of Judgment (Qiyāmah), after Iblis requested it. Iblis obtained permission from God and vowed that he would use this time to lead all men and women astray to Hell as a way of revenge against them. By refusing to obey God’s order he was thrown out of Paradise and thereafter he was called "Shaytan".
He said: "Give me respite till the day they are raised up."(Allah) said: "Be thou among those who have respite."He said: "Because thou hast thrown me out of the way, lo! I will lie in wait for them on thy straight way: "Then will I assault them from before them and behind them, from their right and their left: Nor wilt thou find, in most of them, gratitude (for thy mercies)."(Allah) said: "Get out from this, disgraced and expelled. If any of them follow thee,- Hell will I fill with you all.—Qurʾān (Yusuf Ali's translation), sura 7 (Al-A'raf), ayat 14-18
Although God grants the request, he also warns Satan that he would have no authority over his sincere ‘ubūd "devoted servants".
"As for My servants, no authority shalt thou have over them:" Enough is thy Lord for a Disposer of affairs. —Qurʾān (Yusuf Ali's translation), sura 17 (Al-Isra), ayah 65
Shaytan as a "Whisperer"
In Islamic theology, Shaytan and his minions are "whisperers", who whisper into the hearts of men and women, urging them to commit sin. This is where the desire to sin comes from, according to Islam.
Book of Proverbs (Mishlai)The Quran provides a supplication for mankind, aimed at fighting the tempting of Satan and his minions:Say: I seek refuge with the Lord and Cherisher of Mankind,
The King (or Ruler) of Mankind,
The God (or judge) of Mankind,-
From the mischief of the Whisperer (of Evil), who withdraws (after his whisper),-
(The same) who whispers into the hearts of Mankind,-
Among Jinns and among men. —Qurʾān (Yusuf Ali's translation), sura 114 (Al-Nas), ayat 1-6
Among the verses traditionally associated with King Solomon, it states that the Lord specifically regards "six things the Lord hateth, and the seventh His soul detesteth",namely:
The Epistle to the Galatians (Galatians 5:19-21)
- A proud look
- A lying tongue
- Hands that shed innocent blood
- A heart that devises wicked plots
- Feet that are swift to run into mischief
- A deceitful witness that uttereth lies
- Him that soweth discord among brethren
Includes more of the traditional seven sins, although the list is substantially longer:
- "and such like"
The 4th century monk , who listed eight evil thoughts in Greek as follows:
- Γαστριμαργία (gastrimargia) gluttony
- Πορνεία (porneia) prostitution, fornication
- Φιλαργυρία (philargyria) avarice
- Ὑπερηφανία (hyperēphania) hubris – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as self-esteem
- Λύπη (lypē) sadness – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as envy, sadness at another's good fortune
- Ὀργή (orgē) wrath
- Κενοδοξία (kenodoxia) boasting
- Ἀκηδία (akēdia) acedia – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as dejection
Biologist Jeremy Griffith cites the seven deadly sins as manifestations of the three psychological states of anger, egocentricity and alienation that necessarily accompanied the emergence of consciousness in humans, beginning some two million years ago.
|Seven Deady Sins|
Asmodeus / Lust (Luxuria)
Lust or lechery (carnal "luxuria") is an intense desire. It is usually thought of as excessive sexual wants, however the word was originally a general term for desire. Therefore lust could involve the intense desire of money, fame, or power as well.
In Dante's Purgatorio, the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful/sexual thoughts and feelings. In Dante's Inferno, unforgiven souls of the sin of lust are blown about in restless hurricane-like winds symbolic of their own lack of self-control to their lustful passions in earthly life.
Beelzebub | gluttony (gula or gullia) | Gluttony
Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow, gluttony (Latin, gula) is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of anything to the point of waste.In Christian religions, it is considered a sin because of the excessive desire for food, and its withholding from the needy.Because of these scripts, gluttony can be interpreted as selfishness; essentially placing concern with one's own interests above the well-being or interests of others.Medieval church leaders (e.g., Thomas Aquinas) took a more expansive view of gluttony, arguing that it could also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, and the constant eating of delicacies and excessively costly foods. Aquinas went so far as to prepare a list of six ways to commit gluttony, comprising:
Mammon : Greed (Avaritia) | Greed (Latin, avaritia),
also known as avarice or covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the church) is applied to a very excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of material possessions. Thomas Aquinas wrote, "Greed is a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things."
In Dante's Purgatory, the penitents were bound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. Scavenging and hoarding of materials or objects, theft and robbery, especially by means of violence, trickery, or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by greed. Such misdeeds can include simony, where one attempts to purchase or sell sacraments, including Holy Orders and, therefore, positions of authority in the Church hierarchy. As defined outside of Christian writings, greed is an inordinate desire to acquire or possess more than one needs, especially with respect to material wealth.
Belphegor: Sloth (Acedia)
Sloth (Latin, Socordia) can entail different vices. While sloth is sometimes defined as physical laziness, spiritual laziness is emphasized. Failing to develop spiritually is key to becoming guilty of sloth. In the Christian faith, sloth rejects grace and God. Sloth has also been defined as a failure to do things that one should do. By this definition, evil exists when good men fail to act.
Also known as "Rage", may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger. Wrath, in its purest form, presents with self-destructiveness, violence, and hate that may provoke feuds that can go on for centuries. Wrath may persist long after the person who did another a grievous wrong is dead. Feelings of anger can manifest in different ways, including impatience, revenge, and vigilantism. Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self-interest, although one can of course be wrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy (closely related to the sin of envy). Dante described vengeance as "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite". In its original form, the sin of anger also encompassed anger pointed internally as well as externally. Thus suicide was deemed as the ultimate, albeit tragic, expression of hatred directed inwardly, a final rejection of God's gifts.
Leviathan: Envy (Invidia)
Like greed and lust, Envy (Latin, invidia) is characterized by an insatiable desire. Envy is similar to jealousy in that they both feel discontent towards someone's traits, status, abilities, or rewards. The difference is the envious also desire that entity and covet it.Envy can be directly related to the Ten Commandments, specifically, "Neither shall you desire... anything that belongs to your neighbour." Dante defined this as "a desire to deprive other men of theirs". In Dante's Purgatory, the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire because they have gained sinful pleasure from seeing others brought low. Aquinas described envy as "sorrow for another's good".
Lucifer: Pride (Superbia)
In almost every list, pride (Latin, superbia), or hubris (Greek), is considered the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, and the source of the others. It is identified as a desire to be more important or attractive than others, failing to acknowledge the good work of others, and excessive love of self (especially holding self out of proper position toward God). Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbour". In Jacob Bidermann's medieval miracle play, Cenodoxus, pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation of the titulary famed Parisian doctor. In perhaps the best-known example, the story of Lucifer, pride (his desire to compete with God) was what caused his fall from Heaven, and his resultant transformation into Satan. In Dante's Divine Comedy, the penitents were forced to walk with stone slabs bearing down on their backs to induce feelings of humility.Satan
(Hebrew: הַשָּׂטָן ha-Satan, "the opposer,")
Satan is primarily understood as an "accuser" or "adversary" in the Hebrew Bible, and is not necessarily the personification of evil that he would become in later Abrahamic religions.
In the New Testament, Satan is a name that refers to a decidedly malevolent entity (devil) who possesses demonic god-like qualities.
The original Hebrew term, satan, is a noun from a verb meaning primarily to, “obstruct, oppose,” as it is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6. Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as “the accuser,” or “the adversary.” The definite article “ha-,” English “the," is used to show that this is a title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus this being would be referred to as “the satan.”
In Christianity, terms that are synonymous with "Satan" include:
The most common English synonym for "Satan" is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old English dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was borrowed from Greekdiabolos "slanderer," from diaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through" + ballein "to hurl." In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages along side Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan.
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al Zabul," meaning "Baal the Prince."
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit; thus, Satan has often been depicted as a serpent.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and Satan," (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver," from which is derived the common epithet "the great deceiver."
Other terms identified with Satan include "the prince of this world" in the Book of John 12:31, 14:30; "the prince of the power of the air" also called Meririm, and "the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience" in the Book of Ephesians 2:2; and "the god of this world" in 2 Corinthians 4:4.
From the fourth Century Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the Old Testament.
In traditional Christian understanding of the holy Hebrew scriptures, the Torah, Satan is a synonym for the Devil. For most Christians, he is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God—and also the one who spoke through the serpent and seduced Eve into disobeying God's command. His ultimate goal is to lead people away from the love of God—to lead them to fallacies which God opposes.
Satan is also identified as the accuser of Job, the tempter in the Gospels, the secret power of lawlessness in 2 Thessalonians 2:7, and the dragon in the Book of Revelation.
Before his insurrection, Satan was among the highest of all angels and the "brightest in the sky". His pride is considered a reason why he would not bow to God as all other angels did, but sought to rule heaven himself. The popularly held beliefs that Satan was once an angel who becomes prideful and eventually rebels against God, however, are not portrayed explicitly in the Bible and are mostly based on inference (e.g., Ezekiel 28 and Isaiah 14:12–17).
In mainstream Christianity he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world" and "the god of this world". (2 Cor. 4:4).
The Book of Revelation describes how Satan will be cast out of Heaven, down to the earth, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments and hold to the testimony of Jesus."
Ultimately, Satan is thrown into the "Lake of fire," not as ruler, but as one among many, being tormented day and night forever and ever.
In other Christian beliefs (e.g. the beliefs of the Christadelphians) the word "satan" in the Bible is not regarded as referring to a supernatural, personal being but to any "adversary" and figuratively refers to human sin and temptation.