- "The belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests."
- It may also imply the "glorification of the ideals of a professional military class" and
- the "predominance of the armed forces in the administration or policy of the state"
(from στρατός, stratos, "army" and κράτος, kratos, "dominion", "power") is a form of government headed by military chiefs; the term is derived from two Greek terms signifying army and power.
stratocracy is a form of military government in which the state and the military are traditionally or constitutionally the same entity, and government positions are always occupied by military leaders. Citizens with mandatory and/or voluntary military service, or who have been honorably discharged, have the right to elect and/or govern. The military's political power is supported by law and the society. As such a stratocracy does not have to be autocratic by nature in order to preserve its right to rule.
Historically, the term was used by Greeks to describe the structure of the late Roman Republic and later the early Empire, where there was no distinction between military and civilian offices, and appointment to governing roles required military service and promotion. The closest modern equivalent to a stratocracy is the State Peace and Development Council of Myanmar (Burma), which is arguably different from most other military dictatorships in that it completely abolished the civilian constitution and legislature. A new constitution that came into effect in 2010 cemented the military's hold on power through mechanisms such as reserving 25% of the seats in the legislature for military personnel.
As a military dictatorship or military junta
A military dictatorship or military junta Is a government led by a committee of military leaders. The term derives from the Spanish word junta meaning committee or meeting, specifically a board of directors. Sometimes it becomes a military dictatorship, though the terms are not synonymous. where the military's political power is not enforced or even supported by other laws.
The Arthashastra (IAST: Arthaśāstra) is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy which identifies its author by the names 'Kautilya' and 'Viṣhṇugupta', both names that are traditionally identified with Chāṇakya (c. 350–283 BC), who was a scholar at Takshashila and the teacher and guardian of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of Mauryan Empire.
Rajarshi – a wise and virtuous king.
"In the happiness of his subjects lies the king's happiness, in their welfare his welfare. He shall not consider as good only that which pleases him but treat as beneficial to him whatever pleases his subjects" – Kautilya.
1. Has self-control, having conquered the inimical temptations of the senses;2. Cultivates the intellect by association with elders;3. Keeps his eyes open through spies;4. Is ever active in promoting the security and welfare of the people;5. Ensures the observance (by the people) of their dharma by authority & example;6. Improves his own discipline by (continuing his) learning in all branches of knowledge; and7. Endears himself to his people by enriching them and doing good to them.1.Keep away from another's wife;2.Not covet another's property;3.Practice ahinsa (non-violence towards all living things);4.Avoid day dreaming, capriciousness, falsehood and extravagance; and5.Avoid association with harmful persons and indulging in (harmful) activities.
On the border of the forest, he should establish a forest for elephants guarded by foresters. The Superintendent should with the help of guards...protect the elephants whether along on the mountain, along a river, along lakes or in marshy tracts...They should kill anyone slaying an elephant.—Arthashastra
II. The Just War Theory
Just war theory (or Bellum iustum) is a doctrine of military ethics of Roman philosophical and Catholic origin, studied by moral theologians, ethicists and international policy makers, which holds that a violent conflict ought to meet philosophical, religious or political criteria.
- Realists will typically hold that systems of morals and ethics which guide individuals within societies cannot realistically be applied to societies as a whole to govern the way they, as societies, interact with other societies. Hence, a state's purposes in war is simply to preserve its national interest. This kind of thinking is similar to Machiavelli's philosophy, and Thucydides and Hobbes may also fall under this category.
- Pacifists, however, maintain that a moral evaluation of war is possible, and that war is always found to be immoral. Some of them do not distinguish between free countries and tyrannies. Many of them disregard neither the conditions which determinate wars nor the conditions which prevent wars. Henry Ford and others were famous advocates of pacifistic diplomatic methods instead of war.
- Nonviolence, also maintain that a moral evaluation of war is a duty, and that war is always found to be immoral. Mohandas K. Gandhi, Martin Luther King and Leo Tolstoy were all famous advocates of power of truth, lawfulness, soft power, nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience methods instead of war and to prevent war. Gandhi said he disliked more cowardice than violence.
- Just War Theory, along with pacifism, holds that morals do apply to war. However, unlike pacifism, according to Just War Theory it is possible for a war to be morally justified. The concept of a morally justified war underlies much of the concept International Law, such as the Geneva Conventions. Aristotle, Cicero, Augustine, Aquinas, and Hugo Grotius are among the philosophers who have espoused some form of a just war philosophy. One common Just War Theory evaluation of war is that war is only justified if
1.) waged in a state or nation's self-defense, or
2.) waged in order to end gross violations of human rights.
Political philosopher John Rawls advocated these criteria as justification for war.
III. Antoine-Henri Jomini
Antoine-Henri, baron Jomini (6 March 1779 – 24 March 1869) was a general in the French and later in the Russian service, and one of the most celebrated writers on the Napoleonic art of war. According to the historian John Shy, Jomini "deserves the dubious title of founder of modern strategy." Jomini's ideas were a staple at military academies. The senior generals of the American Civil War—those who had attended West Point—were well versed in Jomini's theories.
"War in its ensemble is NOT a science, but an art. Strategy, particularly, may indeed be regulated by fixed laws resembling those of the positive sciences, but this is not true of war viewed as a whole. Among other things, combats may be mentioned as often being quite independent of scientific combinations, and they may become essentially dramatic, personal qualities and inspirations and a thousand other things frequently being the controlling elements. The passions which agitate the masses that are brought into collision, the warlike qualities of these masses, the energy and talent of their commanders, the spirit, more or less martial, of nations and epochs,—in a word, every thing that can be called the poetry and metaphysics of war,—will have a permanent influence on its results." .While in Russian service, Jomini tried hard to promote a more scientific approach at the general staff academy he helped to found.IIII. Anatol Rapoport's
Anatol Rapoport (Russian: Анато́лий Бори́сович Рапопо́рт; May 22, 1911 – January 20, 2007) was a Russian-born American mathematical psychologist. He contributed to general systems theory, mathematical biology and to the mathematical modeling of social interaction and stochastic models of contagion.
" To put it metaphorically, in political philosophy war is compared to a game of strategy (like chess); in eschatological philosophy, to a mission or the dénouement of a drama; in cataclysmic philosophy, to a fire or an epidemic.
V. Sun TzuThese do not, of course, exhaust the views of war prevailing at different times and at different places. For example, war has at times been viewed as a pastime or an adventure, as the only proper occupation for a nobleman, as an affair of honor (for example, the days of chivalry), as a ceremony (e.g. among the Aztecs), as an outlet of aggressive instincts or a manifestation of a "death wish", as nature's way of ensuring the survival of the fittest, as an absurdity (e.g. among Eskimos), as a tenacious custom, destined to die out like slavery, and as a crime. (On War, Rapoport's introduction, 17) "
The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise attributed to Sun Tzu (also referred to as "Sun Wu" and "Sunzi"), a high-ranking military general, strategist and tactician.
- Laying Plans/The Calculations explores the five fundamental factors (the Way, seasons, terrain, leadership and management) and seven elements that determine the outcomes of military engagements. By thinking, assessing and comparing these points, a commander can calculate his chances of victory. Habitual deviation from these calculations will ensure failure via improper action. The text stresses that war is a very grave matter for the state and must not be commenced without due consideration.
- Waging War/The Challenge explains how to understand the economy of warfare and how success requires winning decisive engagements quickly. This section advises that successful military campaigns require limiting the cost of competition and conflict.
- Attack by Stratagem/The Plan of Attack defines the source of strength as unity, not size, and discusses the five factors that are needed to succeed in any war. In order of importance, these critical factors are: Attack, Strategy, Alliances, Army and Cities.
- Tactical Dispositions/Positioning explains the importance of defending existing positions until a commander is capable of advancing from those positions in safety. It teaches commanders the importance of recognizing strategic opportunities, and teaches not to create opportunities for the enemy.
- Energy/Directing explains the use of creativity and timing in building an army's momentum.
- Weak Points & Strong/Illusion and Reality explains how an army's opportunities come from the openings in the environment caused by the relative weakness of the enemy in a given area.
- Maneuvering/Engaging The Force explains the dangers of direct conflict and how to win those confrontations when they are forced upon the commander.
- Variation in Tactics/The Nine Variations focuses on the need for flexibility in an army's responses. It explains how to respond to shifting circumstances successfully.
- The Army on the March/Moving The Force describes the different situations in which an army finds itself as it moves through new enemy territories, and how to respond to these situations. Much of this section focuses on evaluating the intentions of others.
- Terrain/Situational Positioning looks at the three general areas of resistance (distance, dangers and barriers) and the six types of ground positions that arise from them. Each of these six field positions offer certain advantages and disadvantages.
- The Nine Situations/Nine Terrains describes the nine common situations (or stages) in a campaign, from scattering to deadly, and the specific focus that a commander will need in order to successfully navigate them.
- The Attack by Fire/Fiery Attack explains the general use of weapons and the specific use of the environment as a weapon. This section examines the five targets for attack, the five types of environmental attack and the appropriate responses to such attacks.
- The Use of Spies/The Use of Intelligence focuses on the importance of developing good information sources, and specifies the five types of intelligence sources and how to best manage each of them.
VI. Sun Bin
Five factors that will lead to constant victory':1.The commander who has won the sovereign's trust and has an independent command will win.2.The one who knows the art of war will win.3.The one who gets uniform support from his soldiers will win.4.The one whose subordinates work in concert with each other will win.5.The one who is good at analysing and utilising terrain will win.
There are also five corollaries that will lead to constant defeat:
The one whose command is constrained by the sovereign will be defeated.
The one who does not know the art of war will be defeated.
The one who does not have the support of his soldiers will be defeated.
The one whose subordinates do not work in harmony will be defeated.
The one who does not know to use spies will be defeated.
VIII. William the Silent to Frederick the Great.
De Re Militari
(Latin "Concerning Military Matters"), also Epitoma Rei Militaris, is a treatise by the late Latin writer Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus about Roman warfare and military principles as a presentation of methods and practices in use during the height of Rome's power, and responsible for that power. The extant text dates to the 5th century.
Vegetius emphasized things such as training of soldiers as a disciplined force, orderly strategy, maintenance of supply lines andlogistics, quality leadership and use of tactics and even deceit to ensure advantage over the opposition. He was concerned about selection of good soldiers and recommended hard training of at least four months before the soldier was accepted into the ranks. The leader of the army (dux or duke) had to take care of the men under his command and keep himself informed about the movements of the enemy to gain advantage in the battle.
De Re Militari became a military guide in the Middle Ages. Even after the introduction of gunpowder to Europe, it was carried by general officers and their staffs as a field guide to methods. Friends and subordinates customarily presented embellished copies as gifts to leaders. It went on into the 18th and 19th centuries as a source of policy and strategy to the major states of Europe. In that sense De Re Militari is a projection of Roman civilization into modern times and a continuation of its influence on its cultural descendants.
- Primus | liber electionem edocet iuniorum, ex quibus locis uel quales milites probandi sint aut quibus armorum exercitiis imbuendi
- Secundus | liber ueteris militiae continet morem, ad quem pedestris institui possit exercitus
- Tertius | liber omnia artium genera, quae terrestri proelio necessaria uidentur, exponit,
- Quartus | liber uniuersas machinas, quibus uel obpugnantur ciuitates uel defenduntur, enumerat; naualis quoque belli praecepta subnectit, enumerates
- "All that is advantageous to the enemy is disadvantageous to you, and all that is useful to you, damages the enemy"
- "the main and principal point in war is to secure plenty of provisions for oneself and to destroy the enemy by famine. Famine is more terrible than the sword." "No man is to be employed in the field who is not trained and tested in discipline"
- "It is better to beat the enemy through want, surprises, and care for difficult places (i.e., through manoeuvre) than by a battle in the open field"
- "Let him who desires peace prepare for war," also paraphrased as si vis pacem, para bellum ("If you want peace, prepare for war")
IX. The Thirty-Six Stratagems
Was a Chinese essay used to illustrate a series of stratagems used in politics, war, as well as in civil interaction.The Stratagems are often misnamed as strategies; however, a stratagem (synonymous with ruse) is not the same thing as a strategy (being a long-term plan or outline).
2.1 Chapter 1: Winning Stratagems
2.1.1 Deceive the heavens to cross the ocean
2.1.2 Besiege Wèi to rescue Zhào
2.1.3 Kill with a borrowed knife
2.1.4 Wait at leisure while the enemy labors
2.1.5 Loot a burning house
2.1.6 Make a sound in the east, then strike in the west
2.2 Chapter 2: Enemy Dealing Stratagems
2.2.1 Create something from nothing
2.2.2 Openly repair the gallery roads, but sneak through the passage of Chencang
2.2.3 Watch the fires burning across the river
2.2.4 Hide a knife behind a smile
2.2.5 Sacrifice the plum tree to preserve the peach tree
2.2.6 Take the opportunity to pilfer a goat
2.3 Chapter 3: Attacking Stratagems
2.3.1 Stomp the grass to scare the snake
2.3.2 Borrow a corpse to resurrect the soul
2.3.3 Entice the tiger to leave its mountain lair
2.3.4 In order to capture, one must let loose
2.3.5 Tossing out a brick to get a jade gem
2.3.6 Defeat the enemy by capturing their chief
2.4 Chapter 4: Chaos Stratagems
2.4.1 Remove the firewood from under the pot
2.4.2 Disturb the water and catch a fish
2.4.3 Slough off the cicada's golden shell
2.4.4 Shut the door to catch the thief
2.4.5 Befriend a distant state while attacking a neighbor
2.4.6 Obtain safe passage to conquer the State of Guo
2.5 Chapter 5: Proximate Stratagems
2.5.1 Replace the beams with rotten timbers
2.5.2 Point at the mulberry tree while cursing the locust tree
2.5.3 Feign madness but keep your balance
2.5.4 Remove the ladder when the enemy has ascended to the roof
2.5.5 Deck the tree with false blossoms
2.5.6 Make the host and the guest exchange roles
2.6 Chapter 6: Desperate StratagemsX. The 33 Strategies of War
2.6.1 The beauty trap (Honeypot)
2.6.2 The empty fort strategy
2.6.3 Let the enemy's own spy sow discord in the enemy camp
2.6.4 Inflict injury on oneself to win the enemy's trust
2.6.5 Chain stratagems
2.6.6 If all else fails, retreat
The 33 Strategies of War by Robert Greene is a "guide to the subtle social game of everyday life informed by the ... military principles in war.". It is composed of discussions and examples on offensive and defensive strategies from a wide variety of people and conditions such as Napoleon Bonaparte, Lawrence of Arabia, Alexander the Great, and the Tet Offensive. The scope of the book is broad, applying not only to violent conflicts but also social conflicts such as family quarrels and business negotiations.
The book is divided into five parts: Self-Directed Warfare, Organizational (Team) Warfare, Defensive Warfare, Offensive Warfare and Unconventional (Dirty) Warfare. Each part contains a differing number of strategies, each in a chapter. Each chapter has a similar layout. Descriptions of battles, political and business situations are accompanied by Greene's interpretation. There are occasional instructional sections followed by examples. All chapters end with a "Reversal" to give a brief discussion of where the strategy may not apply, a contrary view or defense. Throughout the book Mr. Greene includes quotes from a variety of sources. These are incorporated in the margins and between sections.
The 33 Strategies of War was part of the reading list for youths attending the Indigenous Leadership Forum organised by the University of Victoria, which aimed to redesign radical Indigenous politics and the Indigenist movement. It is also read by students attending a Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary course in Christian apologetics.His blog, Power, Seduction and War: The Robert Greene Blog, has expanded many of the themes from this book—which he commonly refers to as the WAR book.
Business, management, military history, psychology, self-improvement
1 Synopses of the StrategiesXI.The 48 Laws of Power
1.1 Part 1: Self-Directed Warfare1.2 Part 2: Organizational (Team) Warfare1.3 Part 3: Defensive Warfare1.4 Part 4: Offensive Warfare1.5 Part 5: Unconventional (Dirty) War
is the first book by American author Robert Greene. The book, an international bestseller, is a practical guide for anyone who wants power, observes power, or wants to arm himself against power. It has sold over 1.2 million copies in the United States alone and is popular with famous rappers, entrepreneurs,celebrities, athletes and actors including 50 Cent, Jay-Z, Kanye West, Busta Rhymes,Ludacris, DJ Premier, Dov Charney, Matthew Mansson, Brian Grazer, Andrew Bynum,Chris Bosh, and Will Smith.
Amoral, cunning, ruthless, and instructive, this piercing work by thebestselling author of The 33 Strategies of War and Mastery distills 3,000 years of the history of power in to 48 well-explicated laws
1. Never outshine the master.
2. Never put too much trust in friends; learn how to use enemies.
3. Conceal your intentions.
4. Always say less than necessary.
5. So Much Depends on Reputation – Guard it with your Life.
6. Court attention at all costs.
7. Get others to do the work for you, but always take the credit.
8. Make other people come to you; use bait if necessary.
9. Win through your actions, never through argument.
10. Infection: avoid the unhappy and unlucky.
11. Learn to keep people dependent on you.
12. Use selective honesty and generosity to disarm your victim.
13. When asking for help, appeal to people's self-interests, never to their mercy or gratitude.
14. Pose as a friend, work as a spy.
15. Crush your enemy totally.
16. Use absence to increase respect and honor.
17. Keep others in suspended terror: cultivate an air of unpredictability.
18. Do not build fortresses to protect yourself. Isolation is dangerous.
19. Know who you're dealing with; do not offend the wrong person.
20. Do not commit to anyone.
21. Play a sucker to catch a sucker: play dumber than your mark.
22. Use the surrender tactic: transform weakness into power.
23. Concentrate your forces.
24. Play the perfect courtier
25. Re-create yourself.
26. Keep your hands clean.
27. Play on people's need to believe to create a cultlikefollowing.
28. Enter action with boldness.
29. Plan all the way to the end.
30. Make your accomplishments seem effortless.
31. Control the options: get others to play with the cards you deal.
32. Play to people's fantasies.
33. Discover each man's thumbscrew.
34. Be royal in your fashion: act like a king to be treated like one.
35. Master the art of timing.
36. Disdain things you cannot have: Ignoring them is the best revenge.
37. Create compelling spectacles.
38. Think as you like but behave like others.
39. Stir up waters to catch fish.
40. Despise the free lunch.
41. Avoid stepping into a great man's shoes.
42. Strike the shepherd and the sheep will scatter.
43. Work on the hearts and minds of others.
44. Disarm and infuriate with the mirror effect.
45. Preach the need for change, but never reform too much at once.
46. Never appear perfect.
47. Do not go past the mark you aimed for; in victory, learn when to stop.
48. Assume formlessness.
XII. The Five Rings books
The Book of Five Rings (五輪書 Go Rin No Sho?) is a text on kenjutsu and the martial arts in general, written by the swordsman Miyamoto Musashi circa 1645. There have been various translations made over the years, and it enjoys an audience considerably broader than only that of martial artists: for instance, some business leaders find its discussion of conflict and taking the advantage to be relevant to their work. The modern-day Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū employs it as a manual of technique and philosophy.
Musashi establishes a "no-nonsense" theme throughout the text. For instance, he repeatedly remarks that technical flourishes are excessive, and contrasts worrying about such things with the principle that all technique is simply a method of cutting down one's opponent. He also continually makes the point that the understandings expressed in the book are important for combat on any scale, whether a one-on-one duel or a massive battle. Descriptions of principles are often followed by admonitions to "investigate this thoroughly" through practice rather than trying to learn them by merely reading.
Musashi describes and advocates a two-sword style (nitōjutsu): that is, wielding both katana and wakizashi, contrary to the more traditional method of wielding the katana two-handed. However, he only explicitly describes wielding two swords in a section on fighting against many adversaries. The stories of his many duels rarely reference Musashi himself wielding two swords, although, since they are mostly oral traditions, their details may be rather inaccurate. Some suggest that Musashi's meaning was not so much wielding two swords "simultaneously", but rather acquiring the proficiency to (singly) wield either sword in either hand as the need arose. However, Musashi states within the volume that one should train with a long sword in each hand, thereby training the body and improving one's ability to use two blades simultaneously, though the aim of this was only for training purposes and wasn't meant to be a viable fighting style.
A text on kenjutsu and the martial arts
The Book of EarthKnow the smallest things and the biggest things, the shallowest things and the deepest things. As if it were a straight road mapped out on the ground ... These things cannot be explained in detail. From one thing, know ten thousand things. When you attain the Way of strategy there will not be one thing you cannot see. You must study hard.
"Timing is important in dancing and pipe or string music, for they are in rhythm only if timing is good. Timing and rhythm are also involved in the military arts, shooting bows and guns, and riding horses. In all skills and abilities there is timing.... There is timing in the whole life of the warrior, in his thriving and declining, in his harmony and discord. Similarly, there is timing in the Way of the merchant, in the rise and fall of capital. All things entail rising and falling timing. You must be able to discern this. In strategy there are various timing considerations. From the outset you must know the applicable timing and the inapplicable timing, and from among the large and small things and the fast and slow timings find the relevant timing, first seeing the distance timing and the background timing. This is the main thing in strategy. It is especially important to know the background timing, otherwise your strategy will become uncertain."
The Book of WaterIn strategy your spiritual bearing must not be any different from normal. Both in fighting and in everyday life you should be determined though calm.Your attitude should be large or small according to the situation. Upper, Lower and Middle attitudes are decisive. Left Side and Right Side attitudes are fluid. Left and Right attitudes should be used if there is an obstruction overhead or to one side. The decision to use Left or Right depends on the place.
The Book of FireAs one man can defeat ten men, so can one thousand men defeat ten thousand. However, you can become a master of strategy by training alone with a sword, so that you can understand the enemy's stratagems, his strength and resources, and come to appreciate how to apply strategy to beat ten thousand enemies.You must look down on the enemy, and take up your attitude on slightly higher places.These things cannot be clearly explained in words. You must research what is written here. In these three ways of forestalling, you must judge the situation. This does not mean that you always attack first; but if the enemy attacks first you can lead him around. In strategy, you have effectively won when you forestall the enemy, so you must train well to attain this.
The Book of Wind
"Some of the world's strategists are concerned only with sword-fencing, and limit their training to flourishing the long sword and carriage of the body."
The Book of Void
"By knowing things that exist, you can know that which does not exist."
"In the void is virtue, and no evil. Wisdom has existence, principle has existence, the Way has existence, spirit is nothingness."