The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in 1970. On 11 May 1995, the Treaty was extended indefinitely. A total of 190 parties have joined the Treaty, with five states being recognized asnuclear-weapon states: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China (also the five permanent members of theUnited Nations Security Council). More countries have ratified the NPT than any other arms limitation and disarmament agreement, a testament to the Treaty's significance.
Four non-parties to the treaty are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan and North Korea have openly tested and declared that they possess nuclear weapons, while Israel has had a policy of opacity regarding its own nuclear weapons program. North Korea acceded to the treaty in 1985, but never came into compliance, and announced its withdrawal in 2003.
The NPT consists of a preamble and eleven articles. Although the concept of "pillars" is not expressed anywhere in the NPT, the treaty is nevertheless sometimes interpreted as a three-pillar system, with an implicit balance among them:
- disarmament, and
- the right to peacefully use nuclear technology.The NPT is often seen to be based on a central bargain: “the NPT non-nuclear-weapon states agree never to acquire nuclear weapons and the NPT nuclear-weapon states in exchange agree to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology and to pursue nuclear disarmament aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear arsenals”. The treaty is reviewed every five years in meetings called Review Conferences of the Parties to the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Even though the treaty was originally conceived with a limited duration of 25 years, the signing parties decided, by consensus, to extend the treaty indefinitely and without conditions during the Review Conference in New York City on May 11, 1995, culminating successful U.S. government efforts led by Ambassador Thomas Graham Jr..At the time the NPT was proposed, there were predictions of 25-30 nuclear weapon states within 20 years. Instead, over forty years later, five states are not parties to the NPT, and they include the only four additional states believed to possess nuclear weapons Several additional measures have been adopted to strengthen the NPT and the broader nuclear nonproliferation regime and make it difficult for states to acquire the capability to produce nuclear weapons, including the export controls of the Nuclear Suppliers Groupand the enhanced verification measures of the IAEA Additional Protocol.Critics argue that the NPT cannot stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons or the motivation to acquire them. They express disappointment with the limited progress on nuclear disarmament, where the five authorized nuclear weapons states still have 22,000 warheads in their combined stockpile and have shown a reluctance to disarm further. Several high-ranking officials within the United Nations have said that they can do little to stop states using nuclear reactors to produce nuclear weapons. MORE : HERE
The list of parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty encompasses the states who have signed and ratified or acceded to the international agreement limiting the spread of nuclear weapons.On 1 July 1968, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was opened for signature. Russia (a successor to the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, and the United States are the three depositary states; states wishing to become parties to the NPT must deposit their instruments of ratification or accession with one of these three states. The treaty came into force and closed for signature on 5 March 1970 with the deposit of ratification of the three depositary states and 40 others. Since then, states that did not sign the treaty can now only accede to it. The instrument of ratification, accession, or succession is deposited at the respective capitals of the depositary states: Moscow, London, and Washington, D.C. China and France later acceded to the treaty in 1992.
Date NPT first effective (including USSR, YU, CS of that time)
- 1st decade: ratified or acceded 1968-1977
- 2nd decade: ratified or acceded 1978-1987
- 3rd decade: ratified or acceded 1988-1998 (and Cuba 2002)
- Never signed (India, Israel, Pakistan, South Sudan)As of July 2011, 189 states are recognized as parties to the treaty. Montenegro is the most recent state to have joined, submitting its instrument of accession on 3 June 2006. In addition, the Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 22 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971; Taiwan has accepted comprehensive IAEAsafeguards and the measures of the Additional Protocol to verify that its nuclear program is entirely peaceful. North Korea was a party to the treaty but announced its withdrawalon 10 January 2003; its withdrawal became effective ninety days later. However, there is disagreement among the parties to the treaty whether North Korea's withdrawal was in conformity with the terms of the treaty. Four UN member states have never signed the treaty: India, Israel, Pakistan and South Sudan. The NPT remains the most widely subscribed to arms control treaty in history
" Do you guys have your brains plugged into CNN?Ok let me let YOU in on a "wake up call".
Iran has signed the "Nuclear Non Proliferation Agreement" and Israel has NOT !Now by LAW the USA may NOT have anything to do with any Country or State that has Nuclear Weapons and has NOT signed that agreement. Also by law the USA must help any signing Country or State with their Nuclear Program. That is the Law.Now since we are talking about Law, out of the 2 ... only Israel is under total Defiance of International Law.
Iran complies. Iran has not attacked anybody since 1917 & they have purely a defensive force.Their Military spending is roughly 1/4 that of Saudi Arabia.Lastly, and most importantly, ANYONE exploding a Nuclear Weapon in the Middle East is committing suicide.Especially Iran, as even without retaliation, the Nuclear Cloud would travel directly from Israel over Iran, which is where MOST of the Nuclear Death comes from.Now unplug CNN, get a brain & Google it if you do not know these facts. "+>>(L)Earn and Read about...few Irsaeli NUKES.- Israel's Nukes: HERE- Israeli Nukes: HERE*-Have a nice day&night.<<<---+++--->>>!IT IS VERY IMPORTANT (TO BE SHARED!) AGAIN, AGAIN AND AGAIN. • *Iran* is not the problem. USA/UK/ISRAEL/NATzO Banksters ARE! >>HERE>> REPETITIO EST MATER STUDIORUM <<!• 3 Reasons the US and Israel are Lying About Iran • //ver traducciones en español, por debajo de// HERE• Repeated Lies Call for Repeated Truth Regarding Iran. - by Tony Cartalucci
September 17, 2012 - As Israeli Prime HERE Minister Benjamin Netanyahu calls "for the US to establish a firm "red line" that Iran's nuclear program can't cross without risking a military response," and the West is marched ever closer to war with the Islamic Republic based on tired and repeated lies, three important points must be kept in mind. HEREImage: Israeli Prime Minister has been granted air-time to dictate US foreign policy to American viewers in the latest indication that interests other than those of the American people drive American destiny. Make no mistake however, Netanyahu is not in America to represent the Israeli people, but rather the same corporate-financier interests of Wall Street and London HERE that created and sustain him politically.....• 1. The US and Israel admit in their own policy papers that Iran threatens Western hegemony, not Western security (let alone survival):The very engineers of US-Israeli policy to subvert and destroy Iran, detailed in the 156 page HERE "Which Path to Persia?" report out of the corporate-financier funded Brookings Institution, admit that Iran threatens not the security of Israel or the United States, but the hegemonic geopolitical order the West maintains over the Middle East.In March 2012's HERE "Israel & US: Partners in International Crime," direct quotes from the "Which Path to Persia?" report, as well as excerpts from RAND Corporation documents and else where illustrate these admissions in their entirety.• 2. The US and Israel already struck first:By using HERE US State Department-listed foreign terror organization (#30) Mujahideen-e-Khalq (MEK) , the US and Israel have been waging years of covert war HERE against the Iranian people.In March 2012's HERE "US State Department Hands Terror-Cult US Base in Iraq," the history of MEK as well as advocacy for supporting its terrorist activities inside of Iran is exposed through a series of Western-media reports, government testimony, and US foreign policy papers.In February 2012's HERE "US Implausibly Denies Role in Israeli Terror Squads," reports of both US officials admitting Israel's backing of MEK terrorists to carry out assassinations inside of Iran, as well as evidence of US support for MEK are exposed.It should be remembered that political and military subversion of Iran by the West stretches back to HERE "Operation Ajax" in 1953, where the United States and the British overthrew the democratically elected nationalist government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh.This violent subversion played out long before the current political order in Iran came to power. Iran has been the subject of sovereignty-violating foreign intervention for over half a century - with the West long ago drawing first blood, and continuing to do so up to present day through admitted campaigns of political, economic, and military subversion.• 3. Israel's current leaders have Wall Street-London hegemony, not Israel's self-preservation, at heart:Perhaps the greatest myth in regards to US-Israeli policy toward Iran is that it is driven by concerns for national security and the survival of the "Jewish State" of Israel. In reality, the overall foreign policy pursued by Israel's government has demonstrably run contra to both the Israeli people's survival and their own prosperity. The Israeli government's posture toward Iran is perhaps the most dangerous and unhinged manifestation of this.In August 2012's HERE "Israel's Netanyahu Attempts to Shame UN," it was reported that, "the Israeli government is the greatest enemy of the Israeli people," because:Western corporate-financier oligarchs have done more to send both Americans and Israelis to their deaths than any combination of suicide belt-wearing, Kalashnikov-waving "terrorists." The "War on Terror" is indeed HERE a fraud, and Israel's government has masterfully played a pivotal role - maintaining a strategy of tension to keep its own people in perpetual fear, while keeping their perceived enemies in perpetual and absolute rage. When enemies are difficult to find, the government of Israel and its corporate-financier backers upon Wall Street and in the city of London create them, including the HERE Muslim Brotherhood,HERE Hamas (and here HERE ), and Al Qaeda.>HEREThe result is a nation at constant war, with an inexhaustible supply of enemies in an unending conflict giving the interests of Wall Street and London - the very interests that created HERE the modern state of Israel to begin with - an excuse to remain perpetually engaged in the Middle East with a military encampment the size of a nation at their constant disposal.Augmenting this camp are the Israeli people themselves, just as lied to, manipulated, and kept in constant fear as their counterparts in the West to keep the rank and file of the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) as full as Wall Street's American Armed Forces or Europe's NATO foot soldiers.The Israeli people are no less well-intentioned, talented, or full of potential as any other people on Earth, but they are likewise just as susceptible to being indoctrinated, misled, and terrorized into taking a course of action in no way beneficial to themselves or their nation. The Israeli government does not HERE pursue a foreign or domestic policy conducive to its own self-preservation, let alone its prosperity as a nation.Its constant warmongering, meddling geopolitically beyond its borders, and the creation and perpetuation of its alleged "enemies" have indeed killed more Israelis than any "terrorist." The Israeli government and the corporate-financier interests they represent are HERE the Israeli people's worst enemy. It would be wise for both the Israeli people, and those who perceive themselves to be "enemies of Israel" to remember that and make a clear distinction when moving forward.Israel should be enjoying standards of living and prosperity amongst the highest on Earth considering Israel's extensive human resources, but is instead facing austerityHERE and economic hardship HERE as the collective talent and potential of the Israeli people are squandered in the pursuit of armed corporate-financier hegemony instead of peaceful progress. The same could be easily said of the United States, whose vast military supremacy and geographic location makes its narrative of "Iran, the imminent threat" all the more tenuous.Image: Jews conducting services in Tehran, Iran - Iran hosting the second largest population of Jews in the Middle East, next after Israel itself. (Photo: Vahid Salemi/AP)....To depict Iran as an irrational enemy of Judaism, rather than simply a rational nation-state responding to and defending against the decades of provocations carried out by the West and its Israeli proxies, does not hold historical or social water. Iran hosts the largest Jewish population in the Middle East HERE outside of Israel itself, with an ancient and proud Jewish community HERE that has both refused to leave Iran, as well as condemn it for the benefit of Western propaganda campaigns.• Conclusion •PM Netanyahu's latest propaganda tour of the US is nothing less than a blatant conspiracy against world peace - the premeditated fabrication of a war that puts at risk hundreds of millions of people and the survival of both Israel and Iran itself. Netanyahu and his corporate-financier compatriots hope that fear, terror, and ignorance prevail long before all the myths, lies, and propaganda wear off and the populations of the respective nations involved, Iran, America, and Israel, come to their senses and identify their real enemy - the corporate-financier elite who have driven half a century of conflict with the Iranian people.When these myths wear off, it will not be wars and the pursuit of hegemony that guide the hands of each nation's respective people, but a drive to both free themselves HERE from the monopolies of these HERE corporate-financier interests, and the pursuit of progress on their own terms, for their own benefit rather than for a manipulative elite.
!!+ MUST SEE:-> The Road to World War 3-> ALL AMERICA MUST SEE THIS! Breaking Reality ~ 2013-> Warning very Graphic video but educational to see Every Human Must Watch Share It+~ The Truth About Libya- Documentary~ Libya S.O.S.: NATO crimes~ Libya S.O.S.: "Rebels" crimes~ Libya S.O.S.: MEDIA crimes+THE US AND ISRAELI THREATS vs. THE IRANIAN "THREAT" TO THE WORLD SECURITYWake Up Americans and the world.IF ISRAEL, THE US AND UK ATTACK IRAN. THIS WAR MIGHT TRIGGER A WORLD NUCLEAR CONFLAGRATION!!
• 3 Razones los EE.UU. e Israel están mintiendo sobre Irán • / / traducción de Google / /• Mentiras repetidas llamadas de la Verdad reiteradas sobre Irán. - Por Tony Cartalucci17 de septiembre 2012 - A medida que el premier israelí, Benjamin Netanyahu, el ministro HERE llama "para los EE.UU. para establecer un firme" línea roja "que el programa nuclear de Irán no puede cruzar sin correr el riesgo de una respuesta militar ", y Occidente se marcharon cada vez más a la guerra con la República islámica basada en mentiras cansadas y repetidas, tres puntos importantes deben de tenerse en cuenta.Imagen: El primer ministro israelí ha concedido tiempo de emisión para dictar la política exterior de los EE.UU. a los espectadores estadounidenses en el último indicio de que los intereses distintos de los del pueblo estadounidense conducir destino americano. No se equivoquen sin embargo, Netanyahu no está en América para representar al pueblo de Israel, sino que los mismos intereses corporativos-financieros de Wall Street y Londres HERE -government.html que crean y sostienen lo políticamente.....• 1. Los EE.UU. e Israel admiten en sus documentos normativos propios que Irán amenaza a la hegemonía occidental, no la seguridad occidental (por no hablar de la supervivencia):Los ingenieros mismos de la política israelo-estadounidense para subvertir y destruir a Irán, que se detalla en la página 156 HERE "¿Qué camino a Persia? " informe de la financiera corporativa, financiado por Brookings Institution, admiten que Irán no amenaza la seguridad de Israel o los Estados Unidos, pero el orden geopolítico hegemónico de Occidente mantiene sobre el Oriente Medio.En HERE 03 2012 "Israel y EE.UU.: Partners in Crime Internacional" citas directas del "¿Qué camino a Persia?" informe, así como extractos de los documentos de RAND Corporation y otro donde ilustrar estos ingresos en su totalidad.• 2. Los EE.UU. e Israel ya dio el primer golpe:Mediante el uso de HERE EE.UU. del Departamento de Estado que cotiza en organización terrorista extranjera (# 30) Mujahideen-e-Khalq (MEK), los EE.UU. e Israel han estado librando años de HERE guerra encubierta contra el pueblo iraní.En HERE marzo 2012 el "Departamento de Estado de EE.UU. Manos Terror Cult base de EE.UU. en Irak," la historia de MEK, así como defensa para apoyar sus actividades terroristas dentro de Irán se expone a través de una serie de informes de los medios occidentales, testimonios y documentos de gobierno, la política exterior estadounidense.En HERE 02 2012 de "inverosímil EE.UU. niega el papel de escuadrones del terror israelí", informa tanto a los funcionarios estadounidenses admiten respaldo de Israel de MEK terroristas para llevar a cabo asesinatos dentro de Irán, así como las pruebas de apoyo de EE.UU. a MEK están expuestos.Hay que recordar que la subversión política y militar de Irán por parte de Occidente se remonta a HERE "Operación Ajax" en 1953, donde el United Estados y los británicos derrocaron al gobierno democráticamente elegido del primer ministro nacionalista Mohammad Mosaddegh.Esta subversión violenta juega mucho antes de que el actual orden político en Irán llegó al poder. Irán ha sido objeto de violación de la soberanía, la intervención extranjera durante más de medio siglo - con Occidente hace mucho tiempo la extracción de sangre primero, y seguir haciéndolo hasta la actualidad a través de campañas de admitidos de subversión política, económica y militar.• 3. Actuales líderes de Israel tienen Wall Street-Londres hegemonía, no Israel la auto-preservación, en el fondo:Tal vez el mayor mito en lo que respecta a la política de Estados Unidos e Israel contra Irán es que está impulsado por las preocupaciones por la seguridad nacional y la supervivencia del "Estado judío" de Israel. En realidad, la política exterior global perseguido por el gobierno de Israel ha demostrablemente correr contra de la supervivencia del pueblo israelí y de su propia prosperidad. La postura del gobierno israelí hacia Irán es quizás la manifestación más peligrosa y desquiciada de esto.En HERE 08 2012 de "Netanyahu de Israel Intentos de una pena de las Naciones Unidas", se informó de que "el gobierno israelí es el mayor enemigo del pueblo israelí ", debido a que:Occidentales corporativo-financiero oligarcas han hecho más para enviar los americanos y los israelíes a la muerte que cualquier combinación de cinturón suicida con Kalashnikov, agitando los "terroristas". La "Guerra contra el Terror" es, en efecto HERE un fraude, y el gobierno de Israel ha magistralmente desempeñado un papel fundamental - el mantenimiento de una estrategia de tensión para mantener su propio pueblo bajo un temor constante, conservando sus supuestos enemigos de rabia perpetua y absoluta. Cuando los enemigos son difíciles de encontrar, el gobierno de Israel y sus patrocinadores corporativos-financiero en Wall Street y en la City de Londres crearlos, incluyendo el HERE -western-proxies.html Hermanos Musulmanes, Hamas HERE (y aquíHERE), y Al Qaeda> http.: / / landdestroyer.blogspot.com/2012/05/syrian-war-prequel.htmlEl resultado es una nación en guerra constante, con una fuente inagotable de enemigos en un conflicto interminable dando a los intereses de Wall Street y Londres - los intereses que crearon HERE el moderno estado de Israel, para empezar - una excusa para permanecer perpetuamente ocupado en el Medio Oriente con un campamento militar del tamaño de una nación a su disposición constante.Aumentar este campo son el pueblo israelí sí mismos, al igual que mintió, manipulado, y se mantienen en constante temor que sus homólogos en Occidente para mantener las bases de la Fuerza de Defensa Israelí (IDF) con toda la información de América Fuerzas Armadas de Wall Street o soldados de la OTAN en Europa del pie.El pueblo de Israel no son menos bien intencionado, talentoso, o lleno de posibilidades como cualquier otro pueblo de la Tierra, pero son igualmente tan susceptibles de ser adoctrinados, engañado, y aterrorizaron a tomar un curso de acción de ninguna manera beneficiosa para ellos mismos o su nación. El gobierno israelí no HEREseguir una política extranjera o nacional propicio para su propia auto-preservación, por no hablar de su prosperidad como nación.Su constante guerrerista, intromisión geopolíticamente más allá de sus fronteras, y la creación y perpetuación de sus supuestos "enemigos" de hecho han matado a más israelíes que cualquier "terrorista". El gobierno israelí y los intereses corporativos-financieros que representan son HERE el pueblo de Israel es el peor enemigo. Sería conveniente tanto para el pueblo de Israel, y los que perciben a sí mismos como "enemigos de Israel" para recordar eso y hacer una clara distinción cuando se mueve hacia adelante.Israel debería estar disfrutando de los niveles de vida y la prosperidad entre las más altas de la Tierra teniendo en cuenta muchos recursos humanos de Israel, sino que está frente a la austeridad y HERE dificultades económicas en el talento colectivo y el potencial del pueblo israelí se despilfarran en la búsqueda de la armada corporativo-financiero hegemonía en lugar de progreso pacífico. Lo mismo se podría fácilmente decir de los Estados Unidos, cuya vasta supremacía militar y la ubicación geográfica hace que su narrativa de "Irán, la amenaza inminente" mucho más tenue.Imagen: Judios realización de servicios en Teherán, Irán - Irán anfitrión de la segunda población más grande de los Judios en el Oriente Medio, el siguiente después de Israel. (Foto: Vahid Salemi / AP)....Para representar a Irán como un enemigo irracional del judaísmo, en lugar de simplemente un estado-nación racional responder y defenderse de las décadas de provocaciones llevadas a cabo por Occidente y sus aliados israelíes, no se sostiene histórico o social. Irán alberga a la mayor población judía en el Medio OrienteHERE fuera del propio Israel, con un HERE comunidad judía antigua y orgullosa que ha ambos se negaron a abandonar Irán, así como condenar en beneficio de las campañas de propaganda occidentales .• Conclusión •Última PM Netanyahu gira de propaganda de los EE.UU. es nada menos que una conspiración flagrante contra la paz mundial - la fabricación premeditada de una guerra que pone en riesgo a cientos de millones de personas y la supervivencia de Israel y el propio Irán. Netanyahu y sus compatriotas corporativo-financiero Esperamos que el miedo, el terror y la ignorancia prevalezca mucho tiempo antes de que todos los mitos, mentiras y propaganda desaparecer y las poblaciones de las respectivas naciones involucradas, Irán, Estados Unidos e Israel, vienen a sus sentidos e identificar su verdadero enemigo - la élite empresarial-financiera que han impulsado medio siglo de conflicto con el pueblo iraní.Cuando estos mitos desaparecen, no habrá guerras y la búsqueda de la hegemonía que guíe las manos de los respectivos pueblos de cada nación, sino una unidad a la vez libre mismas HERE . html de los monopolios de estos HERE corporativo-financiero intereses, y la búsqueda del progreso en sus propios términos, por su propia beneficio y no para una élite manipuladora.
!!+ MUST SEE:-> The Road to World War 3-> ALL AMERICA MUST SEE THIS! Breaking Reality ~ 2013-> Warning very Graphic video but educational to see Every Human Must Watch Share It+~ The Truth About Libya- Documentary~ Libya S.O.S.: NATO crimes~ Libya S.O.S.: "Rebels" crimes~ Libya S.O.S.: MEDIA crimes+
THE US AND ISRAELI THREATS vs. THE IRANIAN "THREAT" TO THE WORLD SECURITYWake Up Americans and the world. HEREIF ISRAEL, THE US AND UK ATTACK IRAN. THIS WAR MIGHT TRIGGER A WORLD NUCLEAR CONFLAGRATION!!" THE US AND ISRAELI THREATS vs. THE IRANIAN "THREAT" TO THE WORLD SECURITY:Wake Up Americans and the world. Please don't allow yourself to be fooled by the Zionist Israeli agenda!!Facts speak for themselves correctly and objectively that the Zionists are also experts at propaganda, disinformation, denying facts and outright lying.The Zionists and the Imperialists have been demonizing Iran as a threat to Arab world and the world security!THE REALITY:- Since the Iranian revolution, no country has been invaded by Iran and not a single person has been killed by Iran in a foreign country, not a single Israeli or American or British nuclear scientist killed and not a single Iranian spy drone is detected over Israeli, the UK or US Air Space!- Since 1979, the US has invaded Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya and has been bombing Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen using drones bombers and killing almost two millions (and continue counting) of innocent people including old men, women, children and babies. The US has also killed Third World leaders such as Saddam Hussein and Muammar Gaddafi.- Since Iranian revolution, Israel has killed thousands of Palestinians and some Iranian nuclear scientists.- Not a single Israeli or US scientist killed by Iranians.- Some US and Israeli spy drones reportedly shot down or forced down in Iran.
IF ISRAEL, THE US AND UK ATTACK IRAN. THIS WAR MIGHT TRIGGER A WORLD NUCLEAR CONFLAGRATION!!The actual Nuclear World War could be easily triggered by the illicit agreement between the crazy American President and the deranged and adventurous Israeli Prime Minister.Please take a close look at the example of the actual Israeli nuclear threats to the world security: In 2002, while the United States was building for the 2003 invasion of Iraq, then Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon threatened that if Israel was attacked “Israel will react. Is it clear?”Israeli defense analyst Zeev Schiff explained: “Israel could respond with a nuclear retaliation that would eradicate Iraq as a country.”It is believed President George W. Bush gave Sharon the “Green-Light” to attack Baghdad in retaliation, including with Nuclear Weapons, but only if attacks came before the American military invasion.
THE ACTUAL THREAT TO THE WORLD SECURITY COMES FROM ISRAEL!!Iran is developing nuclear energy program must not alarm the Arab world and the world as a whole. Israel has more than enough nuclear bombs to destroy the whole Middle East at any moment! So what?The Israeli weapons of mass destruction (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Bombs) and weapons of ethnic cleansing (Ethnic Bomb) are the real threat to the world security!!However, just as threatening to Arabs, and the world, is Israel's aggressive stance towards using its own 200 to 500 nuclear weapons -- ones which it has never formally admitted exist. These weapons can be deployed by air, missile or submarine to almost any place on earth.Although dwarfed by the nuclear arsenals of the U.S. and Russia, each possessing over 10,000 nuclear weapons, Israel nonetheless is a major nuclear power, and should be publicly recognized as such. Possessing chemical and biological weapons, an extremely sophisticated nuclear arsenal, and an aggressive strategy for their actual use, Israel provides the major regional impetus for the development of weapons of mass destruction and represents an acute threat to peace and stability in the Middle East.The Israeli nuclear program represents a serious impediment to nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation and, with India and Pakistan, is a potential nuclear flashpoint.(prospects of meaningful non-proliferation are a delusion so long as the nuclear weapons states insist on maintaining their arsenals).The bombs themselves range in size from "city busters" larger than the Hiroshima Bomb to tactical mini nukes. The Israeli arsenal of weapons of mass destruction clearly dwarfs the actual or potential arsenals of all other Middle Eastern states combined, and is vastly greater than any conceivable need for "deterrence."A staple of the Israeli nuclear arsenal are "neutron bombs," miniaturized thermonuclear bombs designed to maximize deadly gamma radiation while minimizing blast effects and long term radiation- in essence designed to kill people while leaving property intact.The Israeli nuclear arsenal is backed-up by the delivery mechanisms that include the long-range all-weather attack fighter bombers: F-4E-2000 Phantoms, F-16 Fighting Falcons and F-35 Radar Evading Stealth Bombers as well as Jericho intercontinental ballistic missiles with a range of 11,500 km, bringing all countries in the Middle East and Gulf regions including Iran and Europe as far as UK into its range. "
> THE ACTUAL THREAT TO THE WORLD SECURITY COMES FROM ISRAEL:>> Israeli Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Threat to World Peace!!The Israeli Nuclear Weapons Program- By John Steinbach - March 2002 - and - October 28 2009
DC Iraq Coalition, Centre for Research on Globalisation (CRG), globalresearch.ca"Should war break out in the Middle East again,... or should any Arab nation fire missiles against Israel, as the Iraqis did, a nuclear escalation, once unthinkable except as a last resort, would now be a strong probability." -- Seymour Hersh(1)"Arabs may have the oil, but we have the matches." Ariel Sharon(2)With between 200 and 500 thermonuclear weapons and a sophisticated delivery system, Israel has quietly supplanted Britain as the World's 5th Largest nuclear power, and may currently rival France and China in the size and sophistication of its nuclear arsenal. Although dwarfed by the nuclear arsenals of the U.S. and Russia, each possessing over 10,000 nuclear weapons, Israel nonetheless is a major nuclear power, and should be publically recognized as such. Since the Gulf War in 1991, while much attention has been lavished on the threat posed by Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, the major culprit in the region, Israel, has been largely ignored. Possessing chemical and biological weapons, an extremely sophisticated nuclear arsenal, and an aggressive strategy for their actual use, Israel provides the major regional impetus for the development of weapons of mass destruction and represents an acute threat to peace and stability in the Middle East. The Israeli nuclear program represents a serious impediment to nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation and, with India and Pakistan, is a potential nuclear flashpoint (prospects of meaningful non-proliferation are a delusion so long as the nuclear weapons states insist on maintaining their arsenals). Citizens concerned about sanctions against Iraq, peace with justice in the Middle East, and nuclear disarmament have an obligation to speak out forcefully against the Israeli nuclear program.
Birth of the Israeli BombThe Israeli nuclear program began in the late 1940s under the direction of Ernst David Bergmann, "the father of the Israeli bomb," who in 1952 established the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission. It was France, however, which provided the bulk of early nuclear assistance to Israel culminating in construction of Dimona, a heavy water moderated, natural uranium reactor and plutonium reprocessing factory situated near Bersheeba in the Negev Desert. Israel had been an active participant in the French Nuclear weapons program from its inception, providing critical technical expertise, and the Israeli nuclear program can be seen as an extension of this earlier collaboration. Dimona went on line in 1964 and plutonium reprocessing began shortly thereafter. Despite various Israeli claims that Dimona was "a manganese plant, or a textile factory," the extreme security measures employed told a far different story. In 1967, Israel shot down one of their own Mirage fighters that approached too close to Dimona and in 1973 shot down a Lybian civilian airliner which strayed off course, killing 104.(3) There is substantial credible speculation that Israel may have exploded at least one, and perhaps several, nuclear devices in the mid 1960s in the Negev near the Israeli-Egyptian border, and that it participated actively in French nuclear tests in Algeria.(4) By the time of the "Yom Kippur War" in 1973, Israel possessed an arsenal of perhaps several dozen deliverable atomic bombs and went on full nuclear alert.(5)Possessing advanced nuclear technology and "world class" nuclear scientists, Israel was confronted early with a major problem- how to obtain the necessary uranium. Israel's own uranium source was the phosphate deposits in the Negev, totally inadequate to meet the need of a rapidly expanding program. The short term answer was to mount commando raids in France and Britain to successfully hijack uranium shipments and, in1968, to collaborate with West Germany in diverting 200 tons of yellowcake (uranium oxide).(6) These clandestine acquisitions of uranium for Dimona were subsequently covered up by the various countries involved. There was also an allegation that a U.S. corporation called Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) diverted hundreds of pounds of enriched uranium to Israel from the mid-50s to the mid-60s.Despite an FBI and CIA investigation, and Congressional hearings, no one was ever prosecuted, although most other investigators believed the diversion had occurred (7), (8). In the late 1960s, Israel solved the uranium problem by developing close ties with South Africa in a quid pro quo arrangement whereby Israel supplied the technology and expertise for the "Apartheid Bomb," while South Africa provided the uranium.
South Africa and the United StatesIn 1977, the Soviet Union warned the U.S. that satellite photos indicated South Africa was planning a nuclear test in the Kalahari Desert but the Apartheid regime backed down under pressure. On September 22, 1979, a U.S. satellite detected an atmospheric test of a small thermonuclear bomb in the Indian Ocean off South Africa but, because of Israel's apparent involvement, the report was quickly "whitewashed" by a carefully selected scientific panel kept in the dark about important details. Later it was learned through Israeli sources that there were actually three carefully guarded tests of miniaturized Israeli nuclear artillery shells. The Israeli/South African collaboration did not end with the bomb testing, but continued until the fall of Apartheid, especially with the developing and testing of medium range missiles and advanced artillery. In addition to uranium and test facilities, South Africa provided Israel with large amounts of investment capital, while Israel provided a major trade outlet to enable the Apartheid state avoid international economic sanctions.(9)Although the French and South Africans were primarily responsible for the Israeli nuclear program, the U.S. shares and deserves a large part of the blame. Mark Gaffney wrote (the Israeli nuclear program) "was possible only because (emphasis in original) of calculated deception on the part of Israel, and willing complicity on the part of the U.S.."(10)From the very beginning, the U.S. was heavily involved in the Israeli nuclear program, providing nuclear related technology such as a small research reactor in 1955 under the "Atoms for Peace Program." Israeli scientists were largely trained at U.S. universities and were generally welcomed at the nuclear weapons labs. In the early 1960s, the controls for the Dimona reactor were obtained clandestinely from a company called Tracer Lab, the main supplier of U.S. military reactor control panels, purchased through a Belgian subsidiary, apparently with the acquiescence of the National Security Agency (NSA) and the CIA.(11) In 1971, the Nixon administration approved the sale of hundreds of krytons(a type of high speed switch necessary to the development of sophisticated nuclear bombs) to Israel.(12) And, in 1979, Carter provided ultra high resolution photos from a KH-11 spy satellite, used 2 years later to bomb the Iraqi Osirak Reactor.(13) Throughout the Nixon and Carter administrations, and accelerating dramatically under Reagan, U.S. advanced technology transfers to Israel have continued unabated to the present.
The Vanunu RevelationsFollowing the 1973 war, Israel intensified its nuclear program while continuing its policy of deliberate "nuclear opaqueness." Until the mid-1980s, most intelligence estimates of the Israeli nuclear arsenal were on the order of two dozen but the explosive revelations of Mordechai Vanunu, a nuclear technician working in the Dimona plutonium reprocessing plant, changed everything overnight. A leftist supporter of Palestine, Vanunu believed that it was his duty to humanity to expose Israel's nuclear program to the world. He smuggled dozens of photos and valuable scientific data out of Israel and in 1986 his story was published in the London Sunday Times. Rigorous scientific scrutiny of the Vanunu revelations led to the disclosure that Israel possessed as many as 200 highly sophisticated, miniaturized thermonuclear bombs. His information indicated that the Dimona reactor's capacity had been expanded several fold and that Israel was producing enough plutonium to make ten to twelve bombs per year. A senior U.S. intelligence analyst said of the Vanunu data,"The scope of this is much more extensive than we thought. This is an enormous operation."(14)Just prior to publication of his information Vanunu was lured to Rome by a Mossad "Mata Hari," was beaten, drugged and kidnapped to Israel and, following a campaign of disinformation and vilification in the Israeli press, convicted of "treason" by a secret security court and sentenced to 18 years in prison. He served over 11 years in solitary confinement in a 6 by 9 foot cell. After a year of modified release into the general population (he was not permitted contact with Arabs), Vanunu recently has been returned to solitary and faces more than 3 years further imprisonment. Predictably, the Vanunu revelations were largely ignored by the world press, especially in the United States, and Israel continues to enjoy a relatively free ride regarding its nuclear status. (15)
Israel's Arsenal of Mass DestructionToday, estimates of the Israeli nuclear arsenal range from a minimum of 200 to a maximum of about 500. Whatever the number, there is little doubt that Israeli nukes are among the world's most sophisticated, largely designed for "war fighting" in the Middle East. A staple of the Israeli nuclear arsenal are "neutron bombs," miniaturized thermonuclear bombs designed to maximize deadly gamma radiation while minimizing blast effects and long term radiation- in essence designed to kill people while leaving property intact.(16) Weapons include ballistic missiles and bombers capable of reaching Moscow, cruise missiles, land mines (In the 1980s Israel planted nuclear land mines along the Golan Heights(17)), and artillery shells with a range of 45 miles (18). In June, 2000 an Israeli submarine launched a cruise missile which hit a target 950 miles away, making Israel only the third nation after the U.S. and Russia with that capability. Israel will deploy 3 of these virtually impregnable submarines, each carrying 4 cruise missiles.(19)The bombs themselves range in size from "city busters" larger than the Hiroshima Bomb to tactical mini nukes. The Israeli arsenal of weapons of mass destruction clearly dwarfs the actual or potential arsenals of all other Middle Eastern states combined, and is vastly greater than any conceivable need for "deterrence."Israel also possesses a comprehensive arsenal of chemical and biological weapons. According to the Sunday Times, Israel has produced both chemical and biological weapons with a sophisticated delivery system, quoting a senior Israeli intelligence official, "There is hardly a single known or unknown form of chemical or biological weapon . . .which is not manufactured at the Nes Tziyona Biological Institute.")(20) The same report described F- 16 fighter jets specially designed for chemical and biological payloads, with crews trained to load the weapons on a moments notice. In 1998, the Sunday Times reported that Israel, using research obtained from South Africa, was developing an "ethno bomb; "In developing their "ethno-bomb", Israeli scientists are trying to exploit medical advances by identifying distinctive a gene carried by some Arabs, then create a genetically modified bacterium or virus... The scientists are trying to engineer deadly micro-organisms that attack only those bearing the distinctive genes." Dedi Zucker, a leftist Member of Knesset, the Israeli parliament, denounced the research saying, "Morally, based on our history, and our tradition and our experience, such a weapon is monstrous and should be denied."(21)
Israeli Nuclear StrategyIn popular imagination, the Israeli bomb is a "weapon of last resort," to be used only at the last minute to avoid annihilation, and many well intentioned but misled supporters of Israel still believe that to be the case. Whatever truth this formulation may have had in the minds of the early Israeli nuclear strategists, today the Israeli nuclear arsenal is inextricably linked to and integrated with overall Israeli military and political strategy. As Seymour Hersh says in classic understatement ; "The Samson Option is no longer the only nuclear option available to Israel."(22) Israel has made countless veiled nuclear threats against the Arab nations and against the Soviet Union (and by extension Russia since the end of the Cold War). One chilling example comes from Ariel Sharon, the current Israeli Prime Minister "Arabs may have the oil, but we have the matches."(23) (In 1983 Sharon proposed to India that it join with Israel to attack Pakistani nuclear facilities; in the late 70s he proposed sending Israeli paratroopers to Tehran to prop up the Shah; and in 1982 he called for expanding Israel's security influence to stretch from "Mauritania to Afghanistan.") In another example, Israeli nuclear expert Oded Brosh said in 1992, "...we need not be ashamed that the nuclear option is a major instrumentality of our defense as a deterrent against those who attack us."(24) According to Israel Shahak, "The wish for peace, so often assumed as the Israeli aim, is not in my view a principle of Israeli policy, while the wish to extend Israeli domination and influence is." and "Israel is preparing for a war, nuclear if need be, for the sake of averting domestic change not to its liking, if it occurs in some or any Middle Eastern states.... Israel clearly prepares itself to seek overtly a hegemony over the entire Middle East..., without hesitating to use for the purpose all means available, including nuclear ones."(25)Israel uses its nuclear arsenal not just in the context of deterrence" or of direct war fighting, but in other more subtle but no less important ways. For example, the possession of weapons of mass destruction can be a powerful lever to maintain the status quo, or to influence events to Israel's perceived advantage, such as to protect the so called moderate Arab states from internal insurrection, or to intervene in inter-Arab warfare. (26) In Israeli strategic jargon this concept is called "nonconventional compellence" and is exemplified by a quote from Shimon Peres; "acquiring a superior weapons system(read nuclear) would mean the possibility of using it for compellent purposes- that is forcing the other side to accept Israeli political demands, which presumably include a demand that the traditional status quo be accepted and a peace treaty signed."(27) From a slightly different perspective, Robert Tuckerr asked in a Commentary magazine article in defense of Israeli nukes, "What would prevent Israel... from pursuing a hawkish policy employing a nuclear deterrent to freeze the status quo?"(28) Possessing an overwhelming nuclear superiority allows Israel to act with impunity even in the face world wide opposition. A case in point might be the invasion of Lebanon and destruction of Beirut in 1982, led by Ariel Sharon, which resulted in 20,000 deaths, most civilian. Despite the annihilation of a neighboring Arab state, not to mention the utter destruction of the Syrian Air Force, Israel was able to carry out the war for months at least partially due to its nuclear threat.Another major use of the Israeli bomb is to compel the U.S. to act in Israel's favor, even when it runs counter to its own strategic interests. As early as 1956 Francis Perrin, head of the French A-bomb project wrote "We thought the Israeli Bomb was aimed at the Americans, not to launch it at the Americans, but to say, 'If you don't want to help us in a critical situation we will require you to help us; otherwise we will use our nuclear bombs.'"(29) During the 1973 war, Israel used nuclear blackmail to force Kissinger and Nixon to airlift massive amounts of military hardware to Israel. The Israeli Ambassador, Simha Dinitz, is quoted as saying, at the time, "If a massive airlift to Israel does not start immediately, then I will know that the U.S. is reneging on its promises and...we will have to draw very serious conclusions..."(30) Just one example of this strategy was spelled out in 1987 by Amos Rubin, economic adviser to Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, who said "If left to its own Israel will have no choice but to fall back on a riskier defense which will endanger itself and the world at large... To enable Israel to abstain from dependence on nuclear arms calls for $2 to 3 billion per year in U.S. aid."(31) Since then Israel's nuclear arsenal has expanded exponentially, both quantitatively and qualitatively, while the U.S. money spigots remain wide open.
Regional and International ImplicationsLargely unknown to the world, the Middle East nearly exploded in all out war on February 22, 2001. According to the London Sunday Times and DEBKAfile, Israel went on high missile alert after receiving news from the U.S. of movement by 6 Iraqi armored divisions stationed along the Syrian border, and of launch preparations of surface to surface missiles. DEBKAfile, an Israeli based "counter-terrorism" information service, claims that the Iraqi missiles were deliberately taken to the highest alert level in order to test the U.S. and Israeli response. Despite an immediate attack by 42 U.S. and British war planes, the Iraqis suffered little apparent damage.(32) The Israelis have warned Iraq that they are prepared to use neutron bombs in a preemptive attack against Iraqi missiles.The Israeli nuclear arsenal has profound implications for the future of peace in the Middle East, and indeed, for the entire planet. It is clear from Israel Shahak that Israel has no interest in peace except that which is dictated on its own terms, and has absolutely no intention of negotiating in good faith to curtail its nuclear program or discuss seriously a nuclear-free Middle East,"Israel's insistence on the independent use of its nuclear weapons can be seen as the foundation on which Israeli grand strategy rests."(34) According to Seymour Hersh, "the size and sophistication of Israel's nuclear arsenal allows men such as Ariel Sharon to dream of redrawing the map of the Middle East aided by the implicit threat of nuclear force."(35) General Amnon Shahak-Lipkin, former Israeli Chief of Staff is quoted "It is never possible to talk to Iraq about no matter what; It is never possible to talk to Iran about no matter what. Certainly about nuclearization. With Syria we cannot really talk either."(36) Ze'ev Shiff, an Israeli military expert writing in Haaretz said, "Whoever believes that Israel will ever sign the UN Convention prohibiting the proliferation of nuclear weapons... is day dreaming,"(37) and Munya Mardoch, Director of the Israeli Institute for the Development of Weaponry, said in 1994, "The moral and political meaning of nuclear weapons is that states which renounce their use are acquiescing to the status of Vassal states. All those states which feel satisfied with possessing conventional weapons alone are fated to become vassal states."(38)As Israeli society becomes more and more polarized, the influence of the radical right becomes stronger. According to Shahak, "The prospect of Gush Emunim, or some secular right-wing Israeli fanatics, or some some of the delerious Israeli Army generals, seizing control of Israeli nuclear weapons...cannot be precluded. ...while israeli jewish society undergoes a steady polarization, the Israeli security system increasingly relies on the recruitment of cohorts from the ranks of the extreme right."(39) The Arab states, long aware of Israel's nuclear program, bitterly resent its coercive intent, and perceive its existence as the paramount threat to peace in the region, requiring their own weapons of mass destruction. During a future Middle Eastern war (a distinct possibility given the ascension of Ariel Sharon, an unindicted war criminal with a bloody record stretching from the massacre of Palestinian civilians at Quibya in 1953, to the massacre of Palestinian civilians at Sabra and Shatila in 1982 and beyond) the possible Israeli use of nuclear weapons should not be discounted. According to Shahak, "In Israeli terminology, the launching of missiles on to Israeli territory is regarded as 'nonconventional' regardless of whether they are equipped with explosives or poison gas."(40) (Which requires a "nonconventional" response, a perhaps unique exception being the Iraqi SCUD attacks during the Gulf War.)Meanwhile, the existence of an arsenal of mass destruction in such an unstable region in turn has serious implications for future arms control and disarmament negotiations, and even the threat of nuclear war. Seymour Hersh warns, "Should war break out in the Middle East again,... or should any Arab nation fire missiles against Israel, as the Iraqis did, a nuclear escalation, once unthinkable except as a last resort, would now be a strong probability."(41) and Ezar Weissman, Israel's current President said "The nuclear issue is gaining momentum (and the) next war will not be conventional."(42) Russia and before it the Soviet Union has long been a major (if not the major) target of Israeli nukes. It is widely reported that the principal purpose of Jonathan Pollard's spying for Israel was to furnish satellite images of Soviet targets and other super sensitive data relating to U.S. nuclear targeting strategy. (43) (Since launching its own satellite in 1988, Israel no longer needs U.S. spy secrets.) Israeli nukes aimed at the Russian heartland seriously complicate disarmament and arms control negotiations and, at the very least, the unilateral possession of nuclear weapons by Israel is enormously destabilizing, and dramatically lowers the threshold for their actual use, if not for all out nuclear war. In the words of Mark Gaffney, "... if the familar pattern(Israel refining its weapons of mass destruction with U.S. complicity) is not reversed soon - for whatever reason - the deepening Middle East conflict could trigger a world conflagration." (44)Many Middle East Peace activists have been reluctant to discuss, let alone challenge, the Israeli monopoly on nuclear weapons in the region, often leading to incomplete and uninformed analyses and flawed action strategies. Placing the issue of Israeli weapons of mass destruction directly and honestly on the table and action agenda would have several salutary effects. First, it would expose a primary destabilizing dynamic driving the Middle East arms race and compelling the region's states to each seek their own "deterrent." Second, it would expose the grotesque double standard which sees the U.S. and Europe on the one hand condemning Iraq, Iran and Syria for developing weapons of mass destruction, while simultaneously protecting and enabling the principal culprit. Third, exposing Israel's nuclear strategy would focus international public attention, resulting in increased pressure to dismantle its weapons of mass destruction and negotiate a just peace in good faith. Finally, a nuclear free Israel would make a Nuclear Free Middle East and a comprehensive regional peace agreement much more likely. Unless and until the world community confronts Israel over its covert nuclear program it is unlikely that there will be any meaningful resolution of the Israeli/Arab conflict, a fact that Israel may be counting on as the Sharon era dawns.Footnotes:1. Seymour Hersh, The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy, New York,1991, Random House, p. 319 (A brilliant and prophetic work with much original research)2
2. Mark Gaffney, Dimona, The Third Temple:The Story Behind the Vanunu Revelation, Brattleboro, VT, 1989, Amana Books, p. 165 (Excellent progressive analysis of the Israeli nuclear program)
3. U.S. Army Lt. Col. Warner D. Farr, The Third Temple Holy of Holies; Israel's Nuclear Weapons, USAF Counterproliferation Center, Air War College Sept 1999 <www.fas.org/nuke/guide/israel/nuke/farr,htm (Perhaps the>best single condensed history of the Israeli nuclear program)
4. Hersch, op.cit., p. 131
5. Gaffney, op.cit., p. 63
6. Gaffney, op. cit. pp 68 - 69
7. Hersh, op.cit., pp. 242-257
8. Gaffney, op.cit., 1989, pps. 65-66 (An alternative discussion of the NUMEC affair)
9. Barbara Rogers & Zdenek Cervenka, The Nuclear Axis: The Secret Collaboration Between West Germany and South Africa, New York, 1978, Times Books, p. 325-328 (the definitive history of the Apartheid Bomb)
10. Gaffney, op. cit., 1989, p. 34
11. Peter Hounam, Woman From Mossad: The Torment of Mordechai Vanunu, London, 1999, Vision Paperbacks, pp. 155-168 (The most complete and up to date account of the Vanunu story, it includes fascenating speculation that Israel may have a second hidden Dimona type reactor)
12. Hersh, op. cit., 1989, p. 213
13. ibid, p.198-200
14. ibid, pp. 3-17
15. Hounman, op. cit. 1999, pp 189-203
16. Hersh, 1989. pp.199-200
17. ibid, p. 312
18. John Pike and Federation of American Scientists, Israel Special Weapons Guide Website, 2001, Web Address <http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/israel/index.html(An invaluable>internet resource)
19. Usi Mahnaimi and Peter Conradi, Fears of New Arms Race as Israel Tests Cruise Missiles, June 18, 2000, London Sunday Times
20. Usi Mahnaimi, Israeli Jets Equipped for Chemical Warfare October 4, 1998, London Sunday Times
21. Usi Mahnaimi and Marie Colvin, Israel Planning "Ethnic" bomb as Saddam Caves In, November 15, 1998, London Sunday Times
22. Hersh, op.cit., 1991, p. 319
23. Gaffney, op.cit., 1989, p. 163
24. Israel Shahak, Open Secrets: Israeli Nuclear and Foreign Policies, London, 1997,Pluto Press, p. 40 (An absolute "must read" for any Middle East or anti-nuclear activist)
25 ibid, p.2
26. ibid, p.43
27. Gaffney, op.cit., 1989, p 131
28. "Israel & the US: From Dependence to Nuclear Weapons?" Robert W. Tucker, November 1975 pp41-42
29. London Sunday Times, October 12, 1986
30. Gaffney, op. cit. 1989. p. 147
31. ibid, p. 153
32. DEBKAfile, February 23, 2001 WWW.debka.com33. Uzi Mahnaimi and Tom Walker, London Sunday Times, February 25, 2001
34. Shahak, op. cit., p150
35. Hersh, op.cit., p. 319
36. Shahak, op. cit., p34
37. ibid, p. 149
38. ibid, p. 153
39. ibid, pp. 37-38
40. ibid, pp 39-40
41. Hersh, op. cit., p. 19
42. Aronson, Geoffrey, "Hidden Agenda: US-Israeli Relations and the Nuclear Question," Middle East Journal, (Autumn 1992), 619-630.
43 . Hersh, op. cit., pp. 285-305
44. Gaffney, op. cit., p194+>> The Israeli Nuclear Weapons ProgramOctober 28 2009, John Steinbach has written a new report titled “The Israeli Nuclear Weapons Program.” The report discusses the origins and continued existence of Israel’s estimated stockpile of 200 nuclear weapons.
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